QUALITATIVE RESEARCH -

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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH:

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH By: LILIAN B. SALAN Balingasag Central School

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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Definition

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Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences , but also in market research and further contexts Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making , not just what , where , when . Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often needed than large samples .

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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Features of Qualitative Research

a focus on natural settings; :

a focus on natural settings ; QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative researchers are interested in life as it is lived in real situations. This has a number of implications: :

Qualitative researchers are interested in life as it is lived in real situations. This has a number of implications: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

They do not set up artificial experiments. :

They do not set up artificial experiments . QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Researchers make as few assumptions in advance of the study as possible. :

Researchers make as few assumptions in advance of the study as possible. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Situations are deemed to be important because they influence behavior. :

Situations are deemed to be important because they influence behavior. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Researchers usually prefer fairly lengthy and deep involvement in the natural setting. :

Researchers usually prefer fairly lengthy and deep involvement in the natural setting. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

In order to gain access to deeper levels, the researcher needs to develop a certain rapport with the subjects of the study, and to win their trust. :

In order to gain access to deeper levels, the researcher needs to develop a certain rapport with the subjects of the study, and to win their trust. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

an interest in meanings, perspectives and understandings; :

an interest in meanings, perspectives and understandings; QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

The qualitative researcher seeks to discover the meanings that participants attach to their behavior, how they interpret situations, and what their perspectives are on particular issues. :

The qualitative researcher seeks to discover the meanings that participants attach to their behavior, how they interpret situations, and what their perspectives are on particular issues. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

an emphasis on process; :

an emphasis on process; QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Educational research in the 1950s and 60s was mostly concerned with relating 'input' factors, such as parents' social class, with 'output' factors, such as academic achievement. :

Educational research in the 1950s and 60s was mostly concerned with relating 'input' factors, such as parents' social class, with 'output' factors, such as academic achievement. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

a concern with inductive analysis and grounded theory. :

a concern with inductive analysis and grounded theory . QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

As noted earlier, qualitative researchers do not, on the whole, start with a theory which they aim to test, though there is no reason why they should not do so if they wish. :

As noted earlier, qualitative researchers do not, on the whole, start with a theory which they aim to test, though there is no reason why they should not do so if they wish. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

They mainly work the other way round, seeking to generate theory from the data. Theory is then said to be 'grounded' in the data. :

They mainly work the other way round, seeking to generate theory from the data. Theory is then said to be 'grounded' in the data. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Methods of Qualitative Research :

Methods of Qualitative Research QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

The main methods employed in qualitative research are observation, interviews, and documentary analysis. :

The main methods employed in qualitative research are observation , interviews , and documentary analysis . QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Observation - In seeking to explore the natural scene, the qualitative researcher aims to be as unobtrusive as possible, so that neither research presence nor methods disturb the situation.   :

Observation - In seeking to explore the natural scene, the qualitative researcher aims to be as unobtrusive as possible, so that neither research presence nor methods disturb the situation. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Interviews - A great deal of qualitative material comes from talking with people whether it is through formal interviews or casual conversations.:

Interviews - A great deal of qualitative material comes from talking with people whether it is through formal interviews or casual conversations. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Sampling - Where qualitative research is seeking to generalize about general issues, representative or 'naturalistic' sampling is desirable. This covers places, times and persons. :

Sampling - Where qualitative research is seeking to generalize about general issues, representative or 'naturalistic' sampling is desirable. This covers places, times and persons. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Written Materials :

Written Materials QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Documents Official documents Personal documents Questionnaires Validity Ethics

Qualitative Research Assessed :

Qualitative Research Assessed QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

In summary, qualitative research is strong for: :

In summary, qualitative research is strong for : QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

1. The attention to detail, the ability to embrace both verbal and non-verbal behavior, to penetrate fronts, discover meanings, and reveal the subtlety and complexity of cases or issues. :

1. The attention to detail, the ability to embrace both verbal and non-verbal behavior, to penetrate fronts, discover meanings, and reveal the subtlety and complexity of cases or issues. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

2. Portraying perspectives and conveying feelings and experiences. :

2. Portraying perspectives and conveying feelings and experiences. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

3. Encompassing processes and natural environments:

3. Encompassing processes and natural environments QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Actions are contextualized within situations and time. :

Actions are contextualized within situations and time. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Theory is generated from the empirical data, and consequently there is 'closeness of fit' between theory and data.   :

Theory is generated from the empirical data, and consequently there is 'closeness of fit' between theory and data. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

As for difficulties and weaknesses:   :

As for difficulties and weaknesses : QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

It has been argued that single qualitative studies cannot provide grounds for generalizing across cases. :

It has been argued that single qualitative studies cannot provide grounds for generalizing across cases. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Immersion in the depths of a qualitative study can lead to either or both 'going native' and 'macro blindness',:

Immersion in the depths of a qualitative study can lead to either or both 'going native' and 'macro blindness', QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative research can be a high-risk, low-yield enterprise. It can take time to negotiate access, assemble a sample, develop trust and rapport, find out what is 'going on' or what people are thinking. :

Qualitative research can be a high-risk, low-yield enterprise. It can take time to negotiate access, assemble a sample, develop trust and rapport, find out what is 'going on' or what people are thinking. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative studies are often accused of being impressionistic, subjective, biased, idiosyncratic and lacking in precision. :

Qualitative studies are often accused of being impressionistic, subjective, biased, idiosyncratic and lacking in precision. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative studies are often accused of being impressionistic, subjective, biased, idiosyncratic and lacking in precision. :

Qualitative studies are often accused of being impressionistic, subjective, biased, idiosyncratic and lacking in precision. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative Analysis :

Qualitative Analysis QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

In qualitative research, analysis frequently takes place at the same time as data collection. :

In qualitative research, analysis frequently takes place at the same time as data collection. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Category and Concept Formation :

Category and Concept Formation QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Most qualitative researchers arrive at a point where their data has to be organized in some kind of systematic way, if only for analytic purposes.

The Generation of Theory :

The G eneration of Theory QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Many qualitative studies do not go beyond the construction of models and typologies. This ordered, descriptive detail is a perfectly legitimate pursuit. :

Many qualitative studies do not go beyond the construction of models and typologies. This ordered, descriptive detail is a perfectly legitimate pursuit. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

It is useful to see theories on two dimensions. The first is Glaser and Strauss’s (1967) distinction between substantive and formal theory. The former is theory that applies to a particular case; formal theory is at a higher level of abstraction and applies to a generality of cases. :

It is useful to see theories on two dimensions. The first is Glaser and Strauss’s (1967) distinction between substantive and formal theory. The former is theory that applies to a particular case; formal theory is at a higher level of abstraction and applies to a generality of cases. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

The second dimension is that of micro-macro. Qualitative research lends itself more readily to micro research, which is concerned with activity within classrooms and schools, interaction between people, local situations, and case studies.   :

The second dimension is that of micro-macro . Qualitative research lends itself more readily to micro research, which is concerned with activity within classrooms and schools, interaction between people, local situations, and case studies. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Mason, J. (2002) Qualitative researching, London, Sage. Maykut, P. & Morehouse, R. (1994) Beginning Qualitative Research. A Philosophic and Practical Guide, London, Falmer Press. Robson, C. (2002) Real world research : a resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers, Oxford, Blackwell. Walford, G. (ed.) (1991) Doing Educational Research, London, Routledge. (Semi-autobiographical accounts of the research of thirteen major educationists, concerned with the personal and practical aspects of the research process) :

Mason, J. (2002) Qualitative researching, London, Sage. Maykut , P. & Morehouse, R. (1994) Beginning Qualitative Research. A Philosophic and Practical Guide, London, Falmer Press. Robson, C. (2002) Real world research : a resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers, Oxford, Blackwell. Walford , G. (ed.) (1991) Doing Educational Research , London, Routledge . (Semi-autobiographical accounts of the research of thirteen major educationists, concerned with the personal and practical aspects of the research process) QUALITATIVE RESEARCH References: