hmt project report


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training report undertaken at hmt pinjore


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I Would like to thank HMT limited which has to provide an important training session and to Mr.Premchand , HRD OFFICER , TRANING CENTER who organized my training schedule. i would like to thanks DGM’s and AGM’s of various department who have to provided important information about their respective shops . I also thanks the workers, who were always ready to clarify our doubt and also increased our knowledge by illustrating to us the finer point I wish to express my deep gratitude to all the concerned person with whose cooperation and coordination I have successfully completed the training in the organization


PREFACE The branch mechanical engineering with specialization in the plant machine tools deals with various aspects of mechanical engineering and about manufacturing of its different parts. In our curriculum on a six weeks training period is included in our four year degree courses. I have completed my training section that is form 11 th july 2011 to 29 th august 2011. I have worked in various section of the company and gathered observation. This report describe about the entire department which were under my observation .


PATTERN SHOP A Pattern shop may be defined as a replica or facsimile model of the desired casting which when packed or embedded in as suitable molding material, produce a cavity called mould, this cavity when filled with molten metal produce the desired casting after solidification of the poured metal. since it is a direct duplication the pattern very closely conforms to the shape and size of the desired casting except for a few variation due to the necessary allowance The most commonly used pattern material in the industry are wood, 2.Metal, 3.Thermocol, 4.Rubber, 5.epoxy resin Wood : it are used pat tern making are of either teak or deodar or both of them.when both them are used,then teak is generally used on the inner sides because teak is harder and retain it’s shape for longer time as compared to deodar which secretes a design that on solidification can effect the shape of the pattern which when used gives defective casting

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Comparison of teak and deodar 1. Teak is easier to work in milling operation. 2. teak is harder in comparison with deodar. 3. Teak has longer life so it is used making pattern of those tools which are to be manufactured In large number 4. teak is costlier so it is generally used in the making of inner sides of the pattern with portion that being that of deodar as it is cheaper and with the effect of resins coming on the outer side of the pattern , the casting is not effected by it.


THEMOCOLS: Themocols can easily used to make pattern to make pattern as well to reduce the labourcost , etc. Themocols can only be used only once to make casting whereas for multiple pattern woods can be used although there might be certain defective after each time usage of woods which can easily be repaired and can be made ready for its next usage. Providing In the furnace which introduce current in the metal scrap and the scrap gets heated up when the melting temperature is reached the molten is collected in ladles taken to puringzone . when this process carried out the are regularly cooled with coolant so that the coils do not melt due to the high temp generated in the coil.

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The foundary of hmt has three furnace , two , each capacity of 3 MT and one of 1.5 MT . the two types of induction furnaces are 1.Main frequency introduction furnace(50hz) 2.Medium frequency induction furnace(250hz) Melting of metal ion mediam furnaces are faster than the main frequency furnaces.

Specification of 1.5 tonne capacity furnace: :

Specification of 1.5 tonne capacity furnace: Line voltage-11000 volts Primary voltage-440 volts Power voltage-440kw Power rating-5ka Melting power-1 tonne per hour Frequency-50 hz Lining thickness-95mm Power factor-0.9

Fettling: :

Fettling: Fettling is the process by which the pattern obtained is given the desired finish by various process. Beforefettling , the casting obtained is subjected to removal of projection ,chips runner ,riser etc. by the following processes 1.decoring 2.chipping 3.shot blasting 4.wheelabrasing

Decoring: :

Decoring : is the process of removing the fused sand. chippingIs the process of removing the runner riser etc . shot blasting or wheel abrasion is used for removing the sand particle by usage of is done by following process 1.pneumatic gun-to remove corner sand 2.angle grinder-to give corner finish 3.diegriender-to give finsh the inner portion 4. pedestal grinder - to give surface finish While making casting gear,surface finish is not required because gear has to be cut on it with the help of milling machine after which it is grinded


MATERIAL TESTING UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE: it has component load scale oil pumps, hydraulic process, main piston fixed crosshead, and movable cross head. it has range according to load applied a) 0-4 tons. b) 0-4 tons. c) 0-10 tons. it is used generally to determine: 1. proportional and elastic limit. 2. yield point. 3. ultimate tensile strength. 4. % elongation and reduction of area.

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Working : it is generally used to perform tensile test which is widely used in the design of material for structure and other purpose. here test piece is pulled out at a constant rate by gradually increasing the axial pull. till the rupture takes place The tensile test for ductile material is generally carried with the help of a universal testing machine on the specimen made from the material of tested. first of all the specimen is held in the jaws of the machine and load is applied gradually by a hydraulic press, which Is measured from the pressure developed inside the cylinder. The function of the oil pump is to supply oil under pressure to the hydraulic cylinder. The load reading is taken directly from load scale. The test is carried out on a specimen having uniform cross-section throughout the gauge length.

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2.Spectroscope : it is the method of qualitative analysis of material with the help of electricity. Argon has is being used as it prevent oxidizing of piece. Here piece is not destroyed. This is used for chromium, ammonium, nickel, tungsten, manganese, zinc, tin, lead, etc. the specimen is directly compared with a chart as it is moved by a caliper and is then compared. It is used to find what material are present. 3. Spring testing machine : in this machine spring testing is done. we will find out compression Or extension of spring and the load applied which is noted from load inductor. Then we calculate spring stiffness. 4. Magnetic cracking test : in this method magnetic crack testing machine is used. It is to check crack is between two piece. We take two pieces which are magnetized followed by spraying the iron chips. The ultra violet light marked and fluorescent color is produced. Then iron piece is glows due to ultra violet light.

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5.Polishing machine : In this machine polishing of material is this bells are present on which abrasive powder is applied. In this machine belt is passed over two pulleys and which is driven by motor 6. Carbon testing apparatus : in this chemical method of analysis of the material. in this we take test sample of 1gm of carbon in silica boat which is put in the silica pipe. this is now passed through furnace which is at 1000 degree Celsius, now oxygen is passed and then Co2 is formed which dissolves in alkaline solution than value is raised to corresponding exhaust temperature. Then carbon content is determined as:

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7. BUFFER FURNANCE: 1. SILICON ROD IT IS HIGH TEMPERATURE TO HEAT 2 .NICHROME ROD IT IS REQUIRE LOW TEMPERATURE TO HEAT 8. PORTABLE MICROSCOPE: it is used for analysis of the structure without cutting. And also it is used for determining the composition of element present in the is used for the analysis of the structure. 9. SPECTROMETER: it is basically computerized control program in which material is kept under observation than software is there which give composition of each element present in the material

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10. Rockwell hardness test : the Rockwell hardness test is generally performed when quick and direct reading is desirable. this test is also performed when the material have a hardness beyond the range of hardness test, in this test the load for making are smaller indent are smaller and thus make shallower indent. This is because of the reason that the Rockwell hardness test is widely used in industry. This test has nine scale of hardness (A to H and K) but B and C scales are widely used. The ball indenters are generally made of hardened tool steel or tongsten carbide. During the test, the specimen is placed on the anvil, and is raised till it comes in contact with the indenter. A minor load of 100 KN applied on the specimen and the small pointer indicates set. Now the main pointer is also brought to the set position. The major load is then applied and is allowed to continue for one second. The depth in mm is read from the smaller pointer.

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11. VICKER HARDNESS TEST : the vicker hardness test is the most accurate test which is a fairly continuous hardness ( vinker hardness number of 5 to 1500 ) . The test makes the use of a diamond square based pyramid indenter. A piston and a dashpot of oil is used for controlling the rate and duration of the loading. the test is performed by placing the specimen on anvil and raised till it is to closed to indenter point. The load is then gradually applied to the indenter and then removed. The diagonal of the square indentation is measured. This test is very suitable for testing polished and hardened material or nitrated surface due to small impression made on the test specimen.


CNC ASSEMBLY ABOUT CNC :- We know that GPM’S are semi – automatic machines. They requires an operator for each work piece loaded on machine and in a limited time period. Mass production is not possible in these machines. More ever complex shapes jobs requires high precision. The need for flexible automation has always been felt. And these are an era of machine tool automation. So, flexible automation is implementer in machine tool in the form of NC and CNC technology. Today HMT is producing a lot of CNC variant of conventional machine with specialized functions and mostly CNC product

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CNC machine are part of the field named mechatronics . This field is the combination of electronics and mechanical engineering fields. When they work in combination they are termed as above. A single CNC machine can perform variety of machining operation in a sequential order ( based on the program ) . for ex. Drilling, taping, slotting, milling etc. operator is used only for clamping and declamping purpose (after feeding the programme ). These machines ensure repeatability of the dimensions (precision). Accuracy of these machines is in micron. A CNC machine may be of three dimensional co ordinate system with XYZ axis. Rest two are available on the machines whose table can rotate and tilt. These are 4 th and 5 th axis. The axis of the spindle is termed as Z axis.

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This axis which crosses Z axis perpendicularly in X axis and the other mutually perpendicular axis is Y axis. CNC machine differ in orientation of the main spindle. If spindle is horizontal it is termed as HMC (horizontal machining centre) and if the spindle is vertical it is termed as VMC ( vertical machining centre) .modal number of machine depends upon capacity of the machine. Capacity means traverse length along various axis or maximum size of the pallet. Thus a VTC 1000 designates a CNC machine whose spindle is vertical with pallet size or traverse length of 1000mm. Various CNC’s produced here – HMC 320M, HMC 400M, HMC 500M, HMC 600M, HMC 800M, VMC 400M, VMC 500M, VMC 800M, VMC 1000M etc.


ASSEMBLY Main parts of CNC machine are :- Bed Column Saddle Table Pallot changer (optional) Magazine AC servo motors Tool changer arm Head Main spindle

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The different processes of assembly are:- Procurement of various parts. Bed is leveled. Column is fixed on bed. Ball screws and drive motors are installed. Alignment of column w.r.t . bed Fixing of saddle on column. Installing ball screws and drive motor. Alignment of saddle w.r.t column. Fixing table on saddle .

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Laser test:- in this test the laser beam is thrown on the pairs of the prism one attached to the table and other on the spindle of the machine and reflected back through the same part and data is collected on the computer and thus can be corrected Tool magazine is assembled and attached to the machine. The oiling system is attached to the machine as separate apparatus and solves the purpose of lubrication and the hydraulic lifting of the table. All the electrical and electronics appliances are installed. The body of the machine is and rest of the accessories are attached to it. Final inspection is done.


HEAVY PARTS & TOOL ROOM this department of HMT is concerned with the production of components varying from the mass of 30 KG to 1000 KG . these are the parts involving the machines of table size 29 feet approx. this is further divided into three sub sections: Heavy parts Medium heavy parts High tech parts

Heavy parts;- :

Heavy parts;- This section is concerned with production and machining of production of parts of masses above 50 KG and upto half a tonne . This shop involves processes like Planning Boring Drilling Milling Shot blasting The component is first brought from the foundry plant to the marking table, where all the primary markings are done. After that the component is brought to the planning section and properly marked for carrying out machining processes as above. The machining is done and the job and the job is sent for grinding purposes to give a fine finish.


2.MEDIUM HEAVY PARTS This section involves the production of smaller parts with mass less than 50 KG. this section involves almost the same Processes and machines as that of heavy parts but on the similar scale. Example of the components being manufactured: cone plates, beds of similar milling machines , heads etc.


3. HIGH TECH SECTION: this section involves the use of higher technology machines like the CNC & NC machines. the perform the job automatically once the program is fed to them according to the job to be worked upon. Some of the machines used in this section are Horizontal Turning Centre(HTC) Vertical Turning Centre (VTC) Horizontal Machining Centre (HMC) Vertical Machining Centre (VMC) High Speed Machining (HMC) Standard Turning Centre (STC ) These machines are named according to their capacity and traverse ex. HTC 600, HTC 1000, VMC 1200, STC 15, STC 25, etc. Example of the components manufactured here: VMC saddle, FN2 machine’s swivel, columns etc.

Some of the tools used on CNC are :

Some of the tools used on CNC are Deep shoulder U drill End mill Reamer Drill bit Boring tool Milling cutter


TOOL ROOM: This is the section where instruments used in a factory are periodically checked for error and calibrated according to the secondary standards available in the company. Also this section involves the production of certain local tools. Many components which requires very high accuracy 9even in microns) are manufactured here. Some of the machines used in the section are:


JIG BORING MACHINE: this machine can perform all the operations except grinding since grinding requires very high rpm and its rpm is limited up to 2000. The basic purpose of this machine is to perform rimmimg operation. Rimming is the process of finishing the drill made or to make a drill by side cutting only, the table of this machine is universal since it is a rotary table and the the head can be turned up to any degree as required by the work.


CYLINDRICAL GRINDING MACHINE this machine is a CNC machine in tool room. It has an accuracy of about 2 microns and is SWISS MADE .


MECHANICAL COMPARATORS this instrument is used for comparing length of two components in 0.2 microns accuracy. This instrument needs very careful handling. It detects the length change due to temperature change when we hold the object with hand. This instrument is kept in a very special AC room to ensure its accuracy.


PRECISION MICROSCOPE this is used to check the angles on the surface of the jobs under consideration. This instrument uses the shadow of the job to check its angle.


GPM ASSEMBLY & CNC ASSEMBLY GPM SECTION: GPM stands for General Purpose Machines. These are generally manually worked machines involving no numerical control. These machines are semi automatic in nature and some of its operation like table movement, job movement, tool movement, etc. can be carried out either automatically or even manually. These are operated by concerned operators only. The concept of modern day machines originated from GPMs itself. These are the simplest form of the metal working machines.

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Examples of these machines :- lathe machines, milling machines, drilling machines, grinding machines etc. In HMT, pinjore unit primarily four types of GPM are manufactured:- FN2 Milling Machines FN3 Milling Machines Turrent Ram Milling Machining Broaching Machines

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The machines are further classified into horizontal, vertical and universal milling machines. When the rotating spindle lies vertical w.r.t the table, the machine is termed as vertical(V) milling machines. When the rotating spindle lies horizontal w.r.t the table of machine, is termed as horizontal milling machine. When the cutting can be done at any angle of the job with the help of rotator motion, is termed as universal (U) milling machine.


ASSEMBLY OF MILLING MACHINES:- First of all the parts are obtained from the foundry and machined accordingly to give the desired shape to them. The base is leveled properly with proper instruments. Then the column is aligned w.r.t the base. The coloum is attached to the base with the help of guide pins which form a tight fit and later with the help of screws. The knee is then aligned with the base keeping in mind that the face of the saddle is parallel with the base. Then the saddle is mounted on the knee and aligned properly. The table is then mounted on the saddle with the help of guides which form a proper fixture with each other.

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The ball screw is then attached which is responsible for the vertical movement. The gears and the pulleys are then assembled inside the column along with other basic components. Then electrical assembly is carried out with proper earthing facility. Then all the accessories are attached to it. Final inspection is done and machine is dispatched.


BROACHING MACHINE :- A broach is a multi-point cutting tool consisting of a bar having a surface containing a series of cutting tooth or edge which gradually increases in size from starting to the rear end. The purpose of the machine is to form splines in the hollow jobs. The surface produced may be flat, circular or of any intricate shape. In broaching, the broach is pushed or pulled over/through a surface of work piece. Each tooth of the tool takes a thin slice from the surface. Broaching of inside surface is called internal or hole broaching and that of outside surface is called surface broaching.


MATERIAL :- High speed steel, brazed carbides or disposable inserts are sometimes used for cutting edges for machining of cast iron parts. Carbide tools are also used to an advantage on steel. HMT manufactures two types of broaching machines. Vertical Broaching Machines Horizontal Broaching Machines


SMALL PARTS AND HEAT TREATMENT This section of machine tools, HMT is primarily concerned with the manufacturer of small parts of machine tools. The machine concerned are CNC machines, milling machines, drilling machines etc. this department require precision work. Since there are number of small parts for number of machines and of different shapes, therefore this department is further divided into different subsections. They are: Spindle section Turret section Round section Gearing section Non round section Accessories


SPINDLE SECTION this section is concerned with the manufacturing of small cylindrical parts or spindles which may be hallow, solid, shell type etc. according to the machine requirement. The jobs concerned are larger in size as compared to the other sections. This section manufactures all the head related jobs. This machine requires for the purpose including lathe machines like LB26 lathe, centre lathe, turret lathe. Also use of drilling machine is there. Thread cutting operation is also carried out in this section. The job to be worked upon are supplied by the foundry department. Examples of the parts manufactured :-bearing housing, main spindle, shafts, cam sleeves etc.


TURRET SECTION this section is concerned with small job construction. These jobs requires precision works since these parts are to be fitted in small area and generally screwed up the machines involved in this process are lathe machines, and use of precision measuring instruments like digital micrometer, dial vernier caliper etc. Example of parts manufactured :- nut, bolts, screw, pins, holder, micro nuts etc.


ROUND SECTION this section is concerned with the round job construction and working. The section involves operations like grinding, slotting, drilling etc. Following are the lists of machines and operations concerned with them:-

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INTERNAL GRINDING MACHINES:- concerned with grinding of inner surface of jobs. SURFACE GRINDING MACHINES:- concerned with outer surface of job. It uses magnetic chuck and shows only horizontal motion of the table at the bed. The grinding wheel is made of abrasives. If required proper coolant is used. ROTARY GRINDING MACHINE:- concerned with horizontal as well as rotational movement of the table. It also uses magnetic chuck. CYLINDRICAL GRINDING MACHINE:- this is used to grind cylindrical jobs with the motion of grinder itself. This job is held in the jaw chuck. SLOTTER:- this machine is concerned with slot cutting. It uses carbide tip and shows vertical motion of the tool for slot cutting.


GEAR SECTION GEAR SECTION :- gear is used for power transmission of different parts of machines. This section is concerned with teeth cutting. Proper indexing is maintained in the process with fixtures on the machines concerned. There are four types of gears used in manufactured here:- Spur gear Worm gear Helical gear Bevel gear The various machines involved are :-.

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BROACHING MACHINE:- use to put splines in gear. MILLING MACHINES:- generally used for manufacturing of spur gear, cutters, of prescribed sizes are used. GEAR HOBBING MACHINES :- used for manufacturing of worm gear, uses hydraulic action


GEAR TEETH GRINDING MACHINE used for grinding of teeth of the gears. In this machine gear teeth are grinded by a worm type grinder wheel. Here the tooth profile are checked with a machine called gear tooth tester. If any error is found of the tooth profile, the error is rectified by a grinding wheel which is dressed on a gear profiling machine which contains a diamond cutter which can rotate at a very high speed.

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NON ROUND SECTION:- this section is also termed as milling section, here non round jobs like blocks, links etc. are manufactured, this section mainly comprises of milling machine of different types, planers, and grinders. Some of them are as follows;- DOUBLE HEAD MILLING MACHINES :- these machines have two different cutters on two different panels which work under same control. This machines can also work as horizontal milling machines.

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VERTICAL MILLING MACHINES:- in these machines the cutter or the job moves in vertical direction only. HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINES:- in these machines the cutter or job moves in horizontal direction only. UNIVERSAL MILLING MACHINES:- the table can be moved at any angle required and thus the action of the machine is universal. The other type of machines involved in this section are the grinding machines like surface grinding machines, internal grinding machines, radial drilling etc.

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ACCESSORIES SECTION:- as we know it is a very cumbersome job to have a separate machine for every job or operation, this will lead to the cost of production rise by huge amount. Thus we try to attain maximum output from the primary machines we are having by attaching suitable accessories to it. Thus we have this section which is concerned with manufacturing and assembly of accessories. This section obtains its jobs foundry which are worked and given required shape. Examples of the accessories used here are:- rack milling attachment, rotary plates, arbors, dividing head, sine bars, angle plate


HEAT TREATMENT The main objective of heat treatment is to change the properties of the metal primarily iron, the main objectives of heat treatment are enlisted below. To relieve the internal stresses developed during cold working processes like casting, forging, welding etc. To improve hardness and strength of metals. To improve ductility and toughness of metals. To improve machinability . To effect a change in grain size To soften metals for further for further working as in cold rolling or wire drawing. To increase resistance to heat, wear, corrosion and shocks.

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To homogenize the structure. To harden the surface while keeping the core tough to impregnate outer surface with other elements. The relieve the stresses of the metal induced during cold or hot working. To improve mechanical properties, example – tensile strength, hardness, ductility and shock resistance etc. To improve electrical and magnetic properties.

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HARDENING:- Material used for CI (medium carbon steel), C8 (high carbon steel) etc….. C1 & C8 are codes used for different steel used in HMT. Firstly the job is heated for 10 minutes or more according to the thickness of the jib (1mm/1min) (thickness section is taken into consideration). Temperature:- according to the material C1, C8 : 840° - 850°c Quenching media – oil for 20 minutes. (C2A, C2R, C2M low alloy steel) :- 770° - 820°c. Checking hardness :- if the hardness is above the

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