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What is a Differentiated Classroom? Dr. ania Lian


What is a differentiated classroom? Planning (ICT) Support – literacy and language


“We are here to get solutions from Australia.”


What we have (not) solved …


Any comments?


Pierre Bourdieu: How much life? How do people accumulate life? Life is not intrinsically meaningful; I occupy reality and, in return, reality occupies me and I become (pre)occupied. It is reciprocal. We accumulate being by accumulating intensity of being, social gravity. Not everyone accumulates the same amount of “being” How to increase being / expand life?


Differentiated learning (pedagogy) Wellbeing Skills (e.g. communication) Behaviour management “Lesson” plans Learning support The use of ICT as learning support Planning for learning


Intentions for today Generate thought-provoking discussions Exposure to ideas that rarely see a mention in educational literature Identify questions that need following up.


http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108029/chapters/What-Is-a-Differentiated-Classroom%C2%A2.aspx What is differentiated classroom?


How myths get created. This is a video –hover to find Play arrow


Same approach as in Slide 14


By Phil Cormack, 2011


Jolly products everywhere


Why bother about differences?


Brain breaks the world into parts There is no one to one correspondence between the “objective” world and the brain. We learn to calibrate ourselves in the world that suits us. When we get a surprise this means that there is a mismatch in our networks. There is no one neuron -> one object perception


Fruit flies develop "loser mentality", apparently this happens across species - a loser of a fight remembers they lost and will act like a loser in the following battles We want to get it right. But why do we need PDs over and over again? Where does it end and what’s the job of the teacher?


Humans are multisensory. Modalities are ways of representing a sense. But, e.g. in vision, the primate brain has generated over two dozen visual areas each of which is concerned with a different visual attribute such as motion, colour, depth, angle, form, texture, luminance, etc. Information is processed by mobilising infinite combinations of mutually reinforcing modalities; People are different as how they organise and mobilise information differs. The key point


Somehow artists knew it all along 


Damasio shows that people perceive hearing or seeing things only after they have already processed information against the multiplicity of multisensory connections. This description illustrates that perception involves an element of problem-solving and that it is an act of personal meaning-making; it is a (re-)construction (Hassabis & Maguire, 2009, p. 1266), not a “reaction”.


Onset, pitch, frequency, rhythm, length We process by integrating (Damasio, 2014) And the combinations can be infinite


“Perception is problem solving” VS Ramachandran “ We see more of our memory than we do of reality”: Peterson, J. (2011). Creative exploration and its illnesses,  Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 56(3), pp. 129-131; p. 130 . e.g. vision about discovering objects and object boundaries (i.e. not about SEEING)




Implications: Multisensory learning environment Focus on learning, not teaching. Resource-based learning with tools supporting manipulation of information How: another workshop


Exploration of points above


Regents' Professor Lynn Nadel , University of Arizona Psychology, The first lecture of the College of Science's Mind and Brain Lecture Series


What is information? Memory is about future Re-organised daily Pruned by glial-cells


1 minute This is a video –hover to find Play arrow


It follows that comprehension too is not an act of recall, but an act of connecting: “ it is a reconstructive process as opposed to the simple retrieval of a perfect holistic record” (Hassabis & Maguire, 2009, p. 1266). The memories on which students draw are their memories, connected to their personal experiences and feelings, These [memories] include a sense of subjective time , connection to the self, narrative structure …, retrieval of relevant semantic information, feelings of familiarity and rich multimodal re-experiencing of the event in a coherent spatial context. (Hassabis & Maguire, 2009, p. 1266)


Can we now begin to create a framework for thinking about differences? Thinking is looking forward or backward? What we draw on is our own experience. What I integrate depends on how I construct the goal. What I see as me is socially constructed Perception is problem-solving. We have evolved interpreting systems on top of our emotional systems. (Immordino-Yang)


What is learning but a model of compliance? Where is the student, the world, the meaning-making systems they engage, i.e. critical and ethical self-transformation?


Thank you 


Extras – just notes and scattered ideas


People are different : Since, we never perceive the world directly, it follows that the kinds of problems students experience are very likely to be different from one learner to the other (“We see more of our memory than we do of reality”, Peterson, 2011, p. 130). Therefore, it is not logically possible to offer a sequenced (or externally scaffolded) intervention strategy capable of simultaneously meeting the needs of all (or even any one student). Entry points to solving individual problems are likely to be different, and perhaps even unknown, from person to person (Lian, 2004, p. 6). Students need personalised support : Technology can help because technology-enhanced environments can be designed to allow students to do different things at different times in response to their different needs. To support this kind of learning, an environment should provide students with opportunities: (a) to explore what they know; (b) to identify the limits of this knowledge, and (c) to generate new forms of knowledge and new possibilities. This process is also captured by Peterson (2011), Our ideas, lacking one-to-one correspondence with the world they represent , instead serve primarily pragmatic purposes. […] If […] our goal-directed actions fail, […] the world confronts us with the evidence of our insufficiency […] Pragmatic failure means that there was more to the thing-in-itself than originally suspected. The unmapped portion of that thing may pose a threat, but may also offer possibility for the expansion of competence. Exploration generates the information from which new possibilities are born. (pp. 129-130) Students solve their problems, not arbitrarily-designed learning tasks . The load-reduction process is managed by the students and in relation to the relationships they perceive as relevant. The understandings they develop in the course of this learning help expand the terms in relation to which they construct themselves with and within the world. To summarise, the understanding that we do not see reality directly and that, as a result, students need support which is designed around the concept of learning, not teaching, is consistent with research in neuroscience which provides growing evidence that the brain processes information in an integrated fashion, by constructing what it thinks is there, not mapping what actually is.


Redundancy vs reification




“Teaching empathy won’t work as we are dealing with externalized network. One needs to now engage in strategies which develop the internal network ; meditation is one such strategy”; “Listening to and telling positive stories, is another”. Immordino Yang Social and Affective Neuroscience in Education http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KyjatC2MCYY


When people read, they First and most of all want to know what matters/ where are they going Scan for sense (regularity) Look for important bits (by detecting the contrasts on which arguments are built) Groupings of contrast (min requirement for art) Look for odd things (isolation) GRAPH TABLE TITLES Read to themselves aloud (rhythm, looking for patterns) Assess for coherence – symmetry , balance Text as a metaphor => linking unrelated (Julia is like the Sun: warm, hot, raging, lighting things up .. ). Multisensory contrast


For example, Damasio (2014) confirms that the brain does not perceive reality directly. Instead, he explains, the brain integrates the “images” it creates of sounds, sight, touch, of our own body, and so on, following quite a complicated process of connections which involve manipulation of images or patterns that the brain creates from the sensory data. Once interpreted or processed, these interpretations are then sent back to the origins of those connections (e.g. the visual or auditory systems) to be then perceived by a human as having heard or seen something. In other words, Damasio shows that people perceive hearing or seeing things only after they have already processed information against the multiplicity of multisensory connections. This description illustrates that perception involves an element of problem-solving and that it is an act of personal meaning-making; it is a (re-)construction (Hassabis & Maguire, 2009, p. 1266), not a “reaction




Dyslexic children utilise vision areas for reading. Expert readers engage language areas while dyslexic children show delay in language development Treating reading as an act of seeing and management of the letters will exacerbate the problem. Treating reading as comprehension should engage those language skills. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VEk-433lQf8 Multisensory


What do we know about learning? What does it mean to us? Practical examples?


Ho w about the idea that Jolly Phonics does not work? It is to be sold, not to support learning?


http://www.aitsl.edu.au/professional-growth/support/professional-learning-support http://www.aitsl.edu.au/docs/default-source/apst-resources/australian_professional_standard_for_teachers_final.pdf http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/standards/list http://www.powercube.net/other-forms-of-power/foucault-power-is-everywhere/


http://www.aare.edu.au/blog/?p=922 http://www.aare.edu.au/blog/?p=1121 http://www.aare.edu.au/blog/?p=1532 http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/5551/2/report.pdf https://literacyblog.blogspot.com.au/2015/04/decoding-comprehension-and-muddled.html http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2015/08/13/430050765/five-big-ideas-that-don-t-work-in-education http://www.aitsl.edu.au/docs/default-source/apst-resources/illustrations-of-practice-resources/literacy-strategy-literacy-session.pdf?sfvrsn=2 https://www2.le.ac.uk/colleges/ssah/documents/research-training-presentations/EpistFeb10.pdf http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sce.3730740506/abstract https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Helen_Donaghue/publication/31494759_An_instrument_to_elicit_teachers'_beliefs_and_assumptions/links/54c7a9c80cf22d626a36d04d.pdf http://www.theeducationist.info/paulo-freires-pedagogy-oppressed-book-summary/ http://www.rucsdigitaleprojektbibliotek.dk/bitstream/1800/7368/1/Project%20Racism.pdf


file:///C:/Users/Ania/Desktop/Dektop%20Folders%20and%20shortcuts/2016/Ania_current_writing/Context_and_Background_Pierre_Bourdieus.pdf http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/30512085/Bourdieus_gravity.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1472815872&Signature=MY6REb4zU5AqG5NS%2F1Rd%2BnOMoUA%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DPierre_Bourdieus_Phenomenological_Social.pdf file:///C:/Users/Ania/Desktop/Dektop%20Folders%20and%20shortcuts/2016/Ania_current_writing/Eavesdropping_on_Bourdieus_philosophers.pdf


Itemised curriculum/ syllabus

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