Designing Units of Work for learning literacy

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Dr Ania Lian, Charles Darwin University, Australia

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“Designing Units of Work for learning literacy“ Part 2:

“Designing Units of Work for learning literacy“ Part 2 Dr. Dr. Ania Lian Charles Darwin University School of Education 24 th June, 2015

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The methodology presented in this ppt applies to PhD students and Early Childhood equally. The difference is in the materials you will use, and the focus that the students identify as relevant to them.

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Literacy is social practice Which evolved to support increasingly complex ways on engagement Engagement – is the key word, not to teach reading/ writing

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‘success in any learning area depends on being able to use the significant, identifiable and distinctive literacy that is important for learning and representative of the content of that learning area . (ACARA, 2015) -------- They are imprecise. Success depends on how well students can work with capabilities in order to act in a way that shows community-building skills (sustainability), and international and local cultural awareness ( Indigenous and Asia connections)

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Literacy is social practice Which evolved to support increasingly complex ways on engagement Engagement – is the key work, not to teach reading/ writing So the job of a teacher is to support students in becoming citizens with a disposition to participate on an informed basis in local and international contexts. We want able students, not myopic people, limiting their participation. What experiences do we need to provide?

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Problem of reading and literacy in general? To engage in social contexts and act informed. To this end, students need to identify and engage tools for the most effective impact What motivates their choices? You? How they understand the context of their engagement So what is the role of the teacher? Help them understand that context. Not letters alone.

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The aim of the activities in the Engagement stage is to stimulate students’ explorations and curiosity. For learning to be meaningful, a learning environment needs to create a negotiation space for the students to explore and expand their engagements in the world and, in the process, to develop a better informed view of themselves and of the world around them . (Lian & Cash, 2016) Do not hurry this phase when in a school and you are free to implement this Unit of work. It may take up to 4 hrs if it proves to be so much fun and if you prepare the empowerment tools and resources to explore. Remember, students have to see the world, not each other. So the methods which focus on reading and classroom discussions will not do the job. They were invented in the 1970s when we did not have good resources.

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Students’ curiosity can be triggered with teachers displaying on the SmartBoard a puzzle. The puzzle can include a series of icons, each hiding a game or a sequence of activities that students can explore as a class or in groups, all linked to additional online and off-line materials that students can interrogate. The icons should make use of symbols such as pictures, graphs (or pie charts), foreign scripts, imaginative forms of representations used by different cultures (e.g. Aboriginal symbols), all chosen to resonate with or to expand the culture and backgrounds of the students. Teachers from Middle Schools can use the same graphic symbols. The explorations which will ensue with their students also will be driven by students’ questions so the students will contro l the start of the Unit of Work. In the phase of empowerment, you will use and prepare materials which allow for controlling complex concepts. Gathering Friends Friends of all kinds Friends around the world

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Objectives Outcomes Activity examples Priorities Indigenous history / cultures Community orientation/sustainability Asian connections What do people do, when, how, and why? Exploration : Forms of engagement enabling the students to express what interests them, what they have been doing, reading, best books they read, saw. The teacher can ask the students how to record these ideas to remember who said what? See what they say, ask them if you could write them on the Whiteboard? Clicking on the link will take hem to activities showing how people store information. In your assignment 2, identify here appropriate games, videos, activities that will allow you to explore with the students how people store information and why and why in different forms. Remember, we prepare kids for a global world so explore through Google how different people do it, how things have changed. Capabilities What social/cultural group(s) is the event to impact on? For whom? What social/cultural group(s) own the resources? Who is included? What social/cultural group(s) do validate as relevant (consult)? What does this say about our society? In relation to each Capability, identify in ACARA what kinds of outcomes that the explorations which you make possible will help you address. Empowerment : Prepare tools and provide opportunities of group work to allow students to make sense of their explorations. At all cost, try to avoid reading to them. Ask them to read to you  and to each other. The idea is to boost opportunities for the students to feel that they are achieving. Remember this is Phase 1 of the Unit of Work so do not push too hard. Tools: next slides

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Objectives Outcomes Activity examples Priorities Indigenous history / cultures Community orientation/sustainability Asian connections What do people do, when, how, and why? Exploration : Forms of engagement enabling the students to express what interests them, what they have been doing, reading, best books they read, saw. The teacher can ask the students how to record these ideas to remember who said what? See what they say, ask them if you could write them on the Whiteboard? Clicking on the link will take hem to activities showing how people store information. In your assignment 2, identify here appropriate games, videos, activities that will allow you to explore with the students how people store information and why and why in different forms. Remember, we prepare kids for a global world so explore through Google how different people do it, how things have changed. Capabilities What social/cultural group(s) is the event to impact on? For whom? What social/cultural group(s) own the resources? Who is included? What social/cultural group(s) do validate as relevant (consult)? What does this say about our society? Outcomes to advise you what kinds of tools you can create for students to make sense out of the activities you created to show how people store information Empowerment : Prepare tools and provide opportunities of group work to allow students to make sense of their explorations. At all cost, try to avoid reading to them. Ask them to read to you  and to each other. The idea is to boost opportunities for the students to feel that they are achieving. Remember this is Phase 1 of the Unit of Work so do not push too hard. Tools: next slides

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Ideas of t ools you can use for this example of a Unit of Work and other you will design

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http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/lian.ania-1810584-designing-unit-work-literacy-australian-schools/ See slides 8-9 . Create your own resource of that kind appropriate to the age of the children, e.g. comparing a magazine, invitation, a newspaper with a children story, or a movie. Compare function and form of storing oral information (debates, discussions) and a library or a computer

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Principle : students manage their own difficulty and do so with the help of tools and activities you make available for them (technology, meetings of other people, discussions, switching between individual/group work and whole class work) Reading and writing tools: Traditional activities where teachers read to students, or present information which is then to be taught to the students draw on traditions which developed hundreds of years ago when the expectations were different and when the resources were absent or expensive. Today, as in the “Hole in the wall” experiment by Sugata Mitra, in order to support their exploratory activity, the students can utilise devices such as speech-to-text and text-to-speech systems to help them read and write. They can do this even in the context of Early Childhood education. Students can speak, copy, paste, or type words into these applications to get the job done. (see slides below) see video form Module 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A62x_JjwLqY Thus , in a play-like fashion, when working with speech to text devices, even with those with a low accuracy rate, to check whether the computer got their words right, students can count or rhythmically correlate the words they said and compare with the display on the computer screen. They can use percussion applications to help them in this task, metronomes, even movement, tapping. They can also use text-to speech devices to confirm their findings. Text to speech devices allow the students to play with different ways of spelling, listen to online avatars reading the different texts they type, be it words or sentences or paragraphs. Using the different speech filters which come with the application students will modify the pronunciation of texts, a technique which distorts the sound but which also helps reveal relationships between texts and sound which otherwise are missed in regular speech. Other support may even include traditional, structured online games. However, the students do not use these games to learn. The games are part of the many activities they draw on in order to verify the ways in which they approach the problems that they experience with reading, writing or interpreting events.

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2. Presentation, comprehension skills, oral skills, personal wellbeing, Students are likely to see a text as a single flow of words. Prepare materials that can sensitise them to the idea that we speak and live in structures. Please not grammar  You can create such materials as my ex-student did, example: http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/lian.ania-1810584-designing-unit-work-literacy-australian-schools/ Note, how with simple animation movements the student allowed her students to compare the difference in the structure of a newspaper and a science article. So different types of texts are stored differently. In other units of work, you may focus the students on how the texts feel. (Some of this was discussed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nj7ZDlp6nfU ). Explore with the students how written or spoken texts feel. Using my own matrix, explore how different texts begin, etc. Also explore (briefly) alternatives as explained in the video. The awareness that they can change the moods of texts will allow the students to one day re-write a story or other texts to give the a different purpose/meaning. Learning about alternatives expands students oral resources (yes, I dread talking about vocabulary because we speak with purposes, not words alone). While doing this kind of “21st century phonics”, students explore the links between the written and the spoken text but, this time, in relation to their own needs which are generated in the context of the puzzle rather than externally, i.e. artificially. Devices of the kind which support playful exploration help students construct meaningful connections between various meaning-making elements in ways that cannot be accounted for through controlled and structured activities. An exploratory, play-based environment supports multisensory learning which draws on and builds multisensory memory which then supports meaning-making, “a facility which is missing in people with amnesia” and which depends on “the ability to flexibly recombine stored information in novel ways” that “allows humans to be limitlessly creative and inventive” (Hassabis & Maguire, p. 1269). It follows that comprehension too is not an act of recall, but an act of connecting, “it is a reconstructive process as opposed to the simple retrieval of a perfect holistic record” (p. 1266). The memories on which students draw are their memories, connected to their personal experiences and feelings.

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3. Introduce different scripts. Invite or take students into the community to experience different scripts and the concept of alphabets. Engage in amazing Calligraphy exercises and students can wonder how you organise picture letters into alphabets in Click for movie

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三人  http:// easyjapanese.org/kanjiinpic.html

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Make connections between alphabets

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http:// easyjapanese.org/write_katakana.html Play with foreign scripts – ask the community for games

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友人

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It needs to be said that students can play with games which have phonics exercises or anything. The difference is that they may use those game to help them discriminate better what they research. This is not the same as using those games so that they can discriminate . Why is this important? Because the brain is not a discriminator – it is a meaning-maker. And unless those exercises are engage in the contexts of bigger activities to serve those activities, the resources on which the students draw to make sense of the traditional literacy games / exercises are poor and the results are poor too. While students may learn to discriminate quickly, the researchers then find out that they cant cope with larger activities – and they cant because we taught them to cope with small, easy and meaningless drills. The idea of a challenge driving students explorations and meaning-making activities is the key.

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Summary of Phase 1 Students were exploring the idea of storing information. This was the engagement “project” The lessons were about students making sense of what they were exploring, with the help of tools that allowed them to read, make mistakes, discuss mistakes, learn from each other, observe what others do, compare. Next stage is about putting it all together.

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Some more tools

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Subclause winpitch.com

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Some mouse that lived at the foot of the tree scrambled over the sleeping lion to return to their home winpitch.com

Slide26:

Once students have assembled a range of understandings on the issues which they explored, they may be ready to summarise and evaluate their findings. It is intended that these evaluations will result in students designing a project (an intervention of sorts) which they may wish to carry out. The discussion which follows identifies the steps of this process in relation to General Capabilities. (Lian & Cash, 2016)

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Summarising the findings In this phase, students identify the relevance of their findings. Students’ reflections can be supported with questions (which too can be presented as a game) and, when needed, students can refer back to the resources they had explored thus far. The questions should build on the objectives of the General Capabilities. In this way, they will reflect the purpose of the Engagement stage which was to result in students generating personally-relevant, culturally expansive and critically informed reflections. The following examples capture the general direction of such questions : What did the students discover and how is this different from what they knew before?; What did the students learn about themselves and others in the course of their explorations and how does it make them feel?; Whose expertise did they engage and how?; How is this learning impacting on what they now know about their community?; and What questions or desires do they believe are worth following up and how can they be engaged further? Identification of the purpose of the project The discussions which will ensue should allow the students to identify the purpose of their project. In groups and as a class, students can do so by drawing on questions which build on their findings. The questions should elicit the following considerations: What can be done to address the questions or desires that have emerged?; How is this action to build strong communities? That is, how is it to support Australia’s orientation to build sustainable relationships at the local level and with our nearest neighbours?; How is the initiative to have a positive impact on the students as individuals and their perceptions of others?; and What impact is the project to have on the community that they will engage? These questions draw students’ awareness to the values and objectives which they want to pursue through their project. This phase should culminate in a clear statement regarding the purpose of the action that students will develop, i.e. the impact they wish to effect.

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Once students have assembled a range of understandings on the issues which they explored, they may be ready to summarise and evaluate their findings. It is intended that these evaluations will result in students designing a project (an intervention of sorts) which they may wish to carry out. The discussion which follows identifies the steps of this process in relation to General Capabilities. (Lian & Cash, 2016)

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Identification of the process of the project In this phase students identify the process of the project . General Capabilities provide a focus to specify: (a) Whom do they want address through the project?; (b) What resources will they need to do it well?; and (c) What picture of the community is their project helping them project? Analysis At this point, students engage in an exploration of the questions which will allow them to address each of the objectives identified in the previous step. Figure 1 illustrates the structure of the students’ projects. The project In order to complete their projects, once again the students will need to go through the stages of the dialogic model of inquiry. Once again they will do exploratory work in the Engagement stage and will bring their findings to the group following the “Evaluation” process. The difference is that now, their inquiries have a new focus and therefore the materials they will explore, the perspective they will engage and the views they will form will be related to this focus. From the perspective of ICT and digital technologies in general, again, it is critical that students have access to materials and tools that can support such learning. Designing collaboration A clearly identified project structure makes it possible for the students to divide work between the group members. For example, depending on the dynamics involved, the work can be divided between groups, each investigating a different objective. Workload should also be distributed among the individual group members to ensure that each person has a chance to engage in dialogic learning and to bring the outcomes of their work to the group.

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Assessment The dialogic model breaks away from traditional pedagogies which itemise the learning process. Instead, students learn to work with different kinds of information and skills and, in so doing, they become critical and strategic users of information. In a dialogic model therefore teachers do not assess items of knowledge. Rather, the aim is to identify how well the students negotiate or mobilise concepts to effect a desired outcome. To this end, teachers will need to identify in students’ work the understandings and the skills that their projects make evident. This is not difficult as, throughout the inquiry process, the collaborative aspect of the projects helps teachers identify where the students and their groups are at each step of the project. This formative assessment also makes it possible for the teachers to identify how the process can be improved. The difference is that in a dialogic model, the school works together to develop and categorise resources which students can then access depending on their questions and thus promoting learning across the curriculum. Assessment of students’ work will need to take into account the support opportunities provided by the learning environment. The dialogic model helps teachers identify the exact stages where this support may need to be allocated or enhanced.

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More play stuff Just run is as a PPS (slide show)

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Is PLAY just a cultural artefact https:// youtu.be/MDStH49W5Hk?t=2m18s When you remove the frontal cortex from little rats, they still engage in rough and tumble behaviour, playing in a normal way as other mammals would.

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Is PLAY just a cultural artefact https:// youtu.be/MDStH49W5Hk?t=2m18s Play is a conversation (interaction) Not all interaction is hostile or business-like Play is a state where joy prevails Joyful experiences are not strange to mammals. Sometimes the joy is sparked by curiosity; or maybe always

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In a learning environment, all participants are engaged in a context of “conversation” The context of PLAY offers us a framework for ethical participation No bullying No dominance Safe Negotiation space Rich in tools enabling us to expand the terms of our participation The ethics of PLAY

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The ethics of PLAY PLAY creates a negotiation space for the students to explore and expand their engagements in the world and, in the process, to develop a better informed view of themselves and of the world around them. Unlike teaching, PLAY is a space of learning . In the context of teaching, it is the teacher who defines the context of the problem and therefore the problem. In the context of PLAY, it is the students who formulate perspectives on the challenges that affect them. Why is this important? A negotiation space takes account of students’ meaning-making systems. This can minimise stress, increase students ’ chances of success and support the perception of their self-efficacy. How to do it? Learning as negotiation - How to do it in a classroom? Play as tools supporting engagement and negotiation --- What tools? Wellbeing as becoming skilled in constructing meaning , which results in the students becoming increasingly self-reliant, able to relate to others, draw on community intelligence while also being able to exercise a fair degree of autonomy and control.

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http://www.oddcast.com/home/demos/tts/tts_example.php

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Speech to text http://talktyper.com /

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Text to speech http:// www.naturalreaders.com/index.html

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http:// www.spreeder.com/app.php

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  One day a lion was resting when a little mouse, who lived nearby, ran playfully over his back and down over his head to the ground .

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  One day a lion was resting when a little mouse, who lived nearby, ran playfully over his back and down over his head to the ground .

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  One day a lion was resting when a little mouse, who lived nearby, ran playfully over his back and down over his head to the ground .

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A Wolf had been feasting too greedily, and a bone had stuck crosswise in his throat. He could get it neither up nor down, and of course he could not eat a thing. Naturally that was an awful state of affairs for a greedy Wolf. So away he hurried to the Crane. He was sure that she, with her long neck and bill, would easily be able to reach the bone and pull it out. " I will reward you very handsomely," said the Wolf, "if you pull that bone out for me."

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An Ox came down to a reedy pool to drink. As he splashed heavily into the water, he crushed a young Frog into the mud. The old Frog soon missed the little one and asked his brothers and sisters what had become of him. "A great big monster," said one of them, "stepped on little brother with one of his huge feet!"

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https://translate.google.com.au /

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