Principal's PD and Leadership

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By Associate Professor Greg Shaw, Charles Darwin University

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Education for Rural Transformation through Principals’ Professional Development in Indonesia: Leadership issues:

Education for Rural Transformation through Principals’ Professional Development in Indonesia: Leadership issues   Education for Rural Transformation through Principals’ Professional Development in Indonesia: Leadership issues  

Organization of basic education:

Organization of basic education Schools, classes, teachers, school principals S chool principal is responsible for everything Principal: Leadership: Vision, Strategies, for optimum student learning resource management: physical and human policy implementation and development community liaison Clearly a school principal is a very demanding and important role (Grubb & Flessa , 2006).

Indonesia:

Indonesia 17,000 islands; 250,000,000 people T he most populous Muslim country . per capita GDP in 2010 is $4300. 13.3% under poverty line ($23/month): 33 million 33 provinces : 395 cities and regencies (districts) Districts implement education . S chool principals in Indonesia was by direct appointment: In 2010 Regulation 28 and in 2007 Regulation 13. Since 2001 decentralisation of responsibility of educational provision and supervision R ecent significant paradigm shift from transmission and content dominated processes centred on the teacher to, constructivist and understanding processes centred on the learner

Principals’ Professional Development 2006 - 2012 :

Principals’ Professional Development 2006 - 2012 AusAID BEP (Stage 1 $ A387 million: Stage 2 $A110 Million (2012 -)   The initial Basic Education Program (BEP: 2006 - 2011) The BEP addressed quality of schools, of teachers and learning materials through better training and resourcing. A focus on the development of school principals was necessary.

The project :

The project It was decided that Principals Professional Development Programmes: A process for the selection of potential principals A Principals Preparation Program (PPP) Principals Continuing Professional Development at 3 levels - Level I, Level II, and Level III CPD Level 1 core modules: School Planning (RKJM-RKAS) Teacher & Staff Management Facilities & Equipment Management Student Management Curriculum Management Finance Management Academic Supervision Selected on the basis of essential skills required by a principal.

Research methodology :

Research methodology The research uses a mixed methodology drawing on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. A trial implementation of level I modules - 420 participants across 6 districts E valuation of the trial: participant questionnaire T rainer focus groups O bservations by team including video and photographic evidence C ritical reflection by lead researcher (author); and critical reflections and comments from Technical Team members.

Principals’ CPD programme approach :

Principals’ CPD programme approach C ontemporary adult education principles used. A different approach to PD that has been taken in the past Competency-based training (Ministerial Regulation 13). Workplace training and workplace skills. Minimal theoretical content and knowledge acquisition Contextualised training has a significant learning advantage in CPD Resource Based Training a strong focus is on development of materials actively engage learners (i.e. active learning) Flexibility potential  ‘In-on-in’ An initial face-to-face session of 5 days followed by a minimum of 3 months on the job training, followed by a further 2 to 3 days of face-to-face activity.

The Level I programme development :

The Level I programme development D eveloped over a four-month period - this was an ambitious timeline A workshop approach used A llowed for the involvement of a range of people, drawing on skills and expertise as required. provided professional development in materials writing However this approach requires more time for the materials development process – low efficiency Not enough time to do both things effectively 2 WS for development Prepare trainers – WS Trial 6 districts Two review and editing WS Final evaluation WS  

Results of the Materials Trial :

Results of the Materials Trial Trial of 7 modules in 6 locations over 3 days Each module group 8 – 12 Trainer guided learners Participants completed a questionnaire of 24 questions Data provides clear confirmation of approach and materials T ime was the main issues   T he qualitative data provided further feedback Some criticism of use of English terms, and lack of variety of examples Excellent feedback on the nature of the materials and the pedagogy embedded in them Strong support of the assessment activities based on workplace tasks   P ositive feedback from technical advisers and other observers

Discussion of materials development process :

Discussion of materials development process The materials development approach was a challenge to most workshop participants. Needed to build a culture of understanding the pedagogy underpinning the programs - some pushback    Developing interactive learning guides was challenging - contrast to traditional training materials Few participants had the specialist writing skills required Developing a culture of understanding and skills in writing CBT resource based PD materials will take time  

Issues at the beginning of Stage 2:

Issues at the beginning of Stage 2 Programs will eventually be rolled out to 250,000 principals N eed for adaptation of program structure and media used Learning Communities to be established of cohorts of principles Strong integration into principals performance appraisal needed Level II and Level III to be developed Level II to have Transformative Leadership as the centrepiece to all modules Significant difficulties in changing teaching and learning cultures S ustainability: of process, and of resources. AusAID Funding will continue for at least 5 more years

2013:

2013 Revision of Level 1 Materials: modes have changed Development of Level 2 and Level 3 Learning outcomes; assessment items and topics Get ready for on-line mode

Training Philosophy:

Training Philosophy competency based training located in the workplace learner centred and activity based Evidence based assessment

Generic outputs:

Generic outputs Job skills: the competencies require of a principal Management skills: People Financial Academic Infrastructure Leadership skills (especially for level 2 & 3)

Modes and strategies of teaching:

Modes and strategies of teaching In-on-In: main approach but there are many variations of this In-on-in In-on- in- on- in -on- in S chool cluster groups (in-on - in-on -in-on- in etc ) individual reading through materials(in-on-in-on-in-on-in etc ) soon we will have “online” mode (in -on-in-on-in-on-in etc ) What else………

Methodology: action Learning:

Methodology: action Learning Applies to whole UoL but also to components such as topics and activities

‘In’ and ‘On’:

‘In’ and ‘On’

Level Focus:

Level Focus PPP: Before getting the job Level 1: basic competencies - skills to do the job but introduce some new ideas: collaboration, planning, communication etc Level 2: going beyond the basic – advanced skills and knowledge – school leadership – transformational leadership Level 3: entrepreneurial, vision and district leadership.

Transformational Leadership: Level 2):

Transformational Leadership: Level 2) Transformation of the school Transformation of the staff in the school Transformation of the Principal Individualized Consideration: know the staff and address their needs, strengths and weaknesses Intellectual Stimulation: challenging assumptions, risk taking, nurture independence, empowerment Inspirational Motivation: The leader has vision and inspires followers Idealized Influence: Leader is a role model

A Change agent and model: Level 3:

A Change agent and model: Level 3 Providing leadership beyond the school A model and mentor to other principals Has a vision and strategic approach to school, district and national development

A transformed school leader:

A transformed school leader Develops a challenging and attractive vision, together with the staff Ties the vision to a strategy for its achievement. Develops the vision , and translates it to actions. Express confidence, decisiveness and optimism about the vision and its implementation. Realize the vision through small planned steps and small successes in the path for its full implementation . Enables, encourages and supports staff to take on roles and to take on leadership

Conclusion:

Conclusion Issues: Difficult to change culture: change management approach Need depth and breadth of skills and knowledge: problem solving and adaption Managing the money: politics, bureaucracy, corruption Going online

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