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The Aztecs: 

The Aztecs By: Kathryn Harris

Who were the Aztecs?: 

Who were the Aztecs?

Who were the Aztecs?: 

Who were the Aztecs? An American Indian people Empire most succesful in the 1400’s-1500’s Originated in Mexico, as hunter-gathers The Center of the empire was the Valley of Mexico Built grand cities and architecture Religion was the most important thing in their culture (polythestic) Their empire was taken over by the Spaniards in 1521 Overall, their empire was one of the most succesful in the Americas

The Aztecs location: 

The Aztecs location

The Aztecs location: 

The Aztecs location The Aztec empire resided, in what is now known as Mexico.

The Aztec Migration: 

The Aztec Migration

The Aztec Migration: 

The Aztec Migration Arrived in the late 1200’s, early 1300’s AD, overtime, they rose to power There is not a lot of information about the first Aztec settlers 12th/13th century- Aztecs went to the Valley of Mexico, lead my Tenoch The Aztecs were greatly strugiling for success In the early 14th century, Tenoch lead his people to Lake Texcoco They built the city, and named it Tenochtitlan, after Tenoch

The Rise of Tenochtitlan: 

The Rise of Tenochtitlan

The rise of Tenochtitlan: 

The rise of Tenochtitlan Capital of the Aztec civilization Founded in 1325 1428 most important city, with over 200,000 inhabitants The city was amazing, with schools, and estbalished law system, and more.

Government: 

Government

Government: 

Government The Aztecs had a leader that was granted by a group of nobles The leader not only controlled the land, but also the military On their land, they had many slaves and servants in which cleaned and tended the land The leader could sometime be chosen after war. This man would be appointed leadership because he stood out, in a positive way, in the war

The Triple Alliance: 

The Triple Alliance

The Triple Alliance: 

The Triple Alliance A combination of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan These three city-states became very successful Tlacopan: in 1431, they forged an alliance with the northern kingdom Texcoco: junior member of the Triple Alliance Tenochtitlan: main part of the triple alliance

Religion : 

Religion

Religion: 

Religion Each god or goddess ruled a human activity, or aspect of nature Their economy was based on farming, so they had many agricultural divinities They held many religious ceremonies, the most important being about, planting, harvesting, and other events in the agricultural year--the purpose of these ceremonies was the have a good harvest, by winning the favor of the gods Human sacrifice was also very important, priests slashed open the chest of a living person, and tore out the heart Their main purpose in life, was to please the gods

Religion cont.: 

Religion cont. They believed that the gods needed human hearts and blood to remain strong Rarely, worshipers would eat parts of the victims body Most victims were prisoners of war of slaves--but the Aztecs also sacrificed children to the god, Tlaloc They had a 260-day religious calendar, and a 365 day solar calendar Every 52 years, the Aztecs had a celebration called, the Binding Up of the Years or the New Fire Ceremony

Main Aztec gods and goddess: 

Main Aztec gods and goddess

Slide18: 

Chicomecotal:the Aztec goddess of maize AKA, “goddess of nourishment” Every year, a young girl would be sacrificed who resembled her

Slide19: 

Coatlicue: God of the gods She gave birth to the moon, stars, etc

Coyolxauhqui: 

Coyolxauhqui Powerful magician Goddess of the moon Daughter of the earth goddess She encouraged her four hundred sisters and brothers to dishonor, and kill their mother

Ehecatl : 

Ehecatl God of wind Feathered Serpent He begins the movement of the sun

Huitzilopochtli: 

Huitzilopochtli God of war Sun god and patron of Tenochtitlan

Mictantecuhtli: 

Mictantecuhtli God of the underworld The only way to worship him was cannibalism

Tlaloc: 

Tlaloc God of rain God of fertility and water He drowns children for his self amusement

Tlaltecuhtli: 

Tlaltecuhtli Known as the sea monster From of the serpent

Tlazoteotl: 

Tlazoteotl Goddess of birth and creation

Xipe Totec: 

Xipe Totec God of birth God of death God farming

Xochipilli: 

Xochipilli God of love/games/beauty/dance/flowers

Xochiquetzal: 

Xochiquetzal Goddess of plants, love, dancing.

Xolotl: 

Xolotl Goddess of lightning, death, fire, and badluck

Education: 

Education

Education: 

Education Boy and Girls were both carefully educated from birth Fathers educated the boys for a few years, while the mothers took care of the girls The Aztecs believed that education was extremly valuable There were two types of schools: calmeac, was for the children of nobility, military, and religious leaders. Then the tepochcalli: for children of common families. In school, boys were taught arts and crafts, and girls were taught to cook, and other necessitites The children learned, history, myths, religion, and songs

Law and Courts: 

Law and Courts

Law and Courts: 

Law and Courts Very harsh punishments The criminals were taken to court--group of judges Adultery-death Commoner found wearing cotton clothes-death Cutting down a living tree-death Drunkenness--1st offense, shaved head. 2nd offesne-death Handling stolen property--sold into slavery Moving a field boundry--death Kiddnapping--death Selling substandard good- loss of property Major Theft--death Minor Theft--sold into slavery Treson--death, loss of property, destruction of land, children sold into slavery

Military: 

Military

Military: 

Military Aztec’s military--all male Was considered a religious duty to serve their people They fought not only to enlarge their empire, but also to take prisoners to sacrifice to the gods Highest goal for a young man--to be a successful warrior Men who took captives in battle were highly rewarded The main weapon was a wooden club edged with sharp pieces of glass, they also used bows and arrows and spears They captured prisoners, as apposed to killing them

Social Classes: 

Social Classes

Social Classes: 

Social Classes Social classes: 1. Nobles, 2. Commoners, 3. Serfs, and 4. Slaves Slaves: the children of poor parents could be sold. Slaves could buy back their freedom. The slaves that escaped and reached the royal palace without being caught were given freedom. Serfs: worked on/in the palaces estate Commoners: The common people. These people were actively engaged in argiculture and the common trades. Commoners were given litetime ownership of an area of land. The lowest group of commoners were not allowed to own property Nobles: were noble by birth. Priestshood, government, and the army all earned a high status in the society and those who earned their rank

Agriculture: 

Agriculture

Agriculture: 

Agriculture Corn- was one of the most important crops Discovery of chocolate, from the fruit of the cacao tree, and used it as flavoring The lowlands provided tropical products: cotton, papayas, rubber, and cacao beans, from which chocolate is made The main, and most basic agricultural tool, was a pointed stick for digging Hunting was very crucial for survival They hunted mostly: deer, rabbits, ducks, and geese The principal food was a thin cornmeal pancake called a tlaxalli (tortilla) They also used tlaxalli’s to scoop up foods while they ate

The Aztec Calendar: 

The Aztec Calendar

The Aztec calendar: 

The Aztec calendar The Aztecs have two calendars One being: a 365 day calendar, with 16 months and 22 days a month

Art: 

Art

Art: 

Art They created some of the most eloberate pieces of artwork in the Americas The most famous surviving Aztec sculpture is known as the Calendar Stone, which represents the Aztec universe

Architecture: 

Architecture

Architecture: 

Architecture Little Aztec architecture remains Spaniards considered it their duty, as Chrsitains to wipe out the temples and all of traces of the Aztecs religion They destroyed Tenochtitlan and built Mexico City on the ruins Years later, archaeologists excavated the site of the Great Temple in downtown Mexico City They have uncovered over 6,000 objects

Writing: 

Writing

Writing: 

Writing Spoken language--Nahutal. It belongs to a large group of Natives known as the Aztec-Tanoan or Uto-Aztecan family Nahuatl also includes the languages spoken by the Comanche, Pima, Shoshone, and other tribes of western North America Their form of writing is called, pictographic writing, which consisted of small pictures. Some pictures represented ideas, other sounds of syllables. For example, the Aztec town, Coatepec, was represented by a snake and a hill The Aztecs used it mainly for business records, censuses, historical and religious writings, and tax lists

Technology: 

Technology

Technology: 

Technology The Aztecs created a lot of technology for their everyday life Medical Farming War Schooling Architecture

Trade and Transportation: 

Trade and Transportation

Slide52: 

Market place--major center of Aztec life Market at Tlatelolco was the largest in the Americas Hernando Cortes reported more than 60,000 persons visited it daily Merchants call pochteca traveled throughout the empire on trading expeditions People of the lowlands traded such products as cacao beans, cotton, jaguar pelts, rubber, and the feathers of tropical birds. In return, they received goods from the highlands, including obsidian, which was used for knives, and a variety of manufactured products The Aztecs had no system of money, they usually traded goods and services for goods and services Often Aztecs traveled by foot Dugout canoes were an important means of transportation in the Valley of Mexico

Shelter: 

Shelter Most Aztec houses were simple in design In the highlands, they were made of adobe, and in the lowlands, the houses has thatched roofs, and the walls were made of branches or reeds plastered with clay Most families had several other buildings, including a storehouse, and a small sweat house, where the family would take baths Wealthier families had large adobe or stone house built around a patio

The fall of the empire: 

The fall of the empire

The Fall of the empire: 

The Fall of the empire The Empire fell in the early 1500’s The Spaniards considered it their duty to wipe out the traces of the Aztecs The Spaniards took a lot of the Aztecs culture and ways

THANKS FOR WATCHING!!: 

THANKS FOR WATCHING!!

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