Introduction to Stylistics

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ABC in Techniques of Stylistics Analysis A Practical Approach to Descriptive Grammar from Clause to Text Structure Zhang Huahong School of Foreign Studies Available at http://sfs.scnu.edu.cn/hhzhang/index.htm

How to use the material Wright, L. et al.:Stylistics:A Practical Course book 1.Reading carefully the guide to the course book. 2.Do the task set based on each text. 3.Pay attention to the frequency of some linguistic features. 4.Pay attention to some abnormal features. 5.Think over the purpose of the author. 6.Think over the point of view of the author. 7.Consult the “solution” and the “verdict”.:

How to use the material Wright, L. et al.: Stylistics:A Practical Course book 1.Reading carefully the guide to the course book. 2.Do the task set based on each text. 3.Pay attention to the frequency of some linguistic features. 4.Pay attention to some abnormal features. 5.Think over the purpose of the author. 6.Think over the point of view of the author. 7.Consult the “solution” and the “verdict”.

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References Crystal, D.: Investigating English Style Halliday: Descriptive Linguistics in Literary Studies Leech, G.: Style in Fiction Leech, G.: A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry Peer, W.: Stylistics and Psychology Widdowson, H.et al.: Style and the Teaching of literature

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The significance of the course 1.Arts as means of human expression 2.Literature as a mirror of society 3.Language as a mirror of thought 4.Language as a carrier of culture 5.Style as a means of expressing thoughts and feelings of the author

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Suggested Format of Course Paper I. Abstract II. Key words III. Body 1. Brief account of the author 2. Brief account of the essay 3. Major theme of the essay 4. Linguistic presentation of the theme a. Lexical features b. Syntactic features c. Phonological features d. Semantic features/figures of speech 5. Conclusion IV. Reference

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Format of Reference 主要参考文献条目排列顺序如下: [ 序号 ] 作者 . 文献题名 [ 文献类型标识 ]*.( 出版地 :) 出版者,出版年 . 起始页码 . 例: Reference: [ 1 ] Levinson, S. Pragmatics [ M ] . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. 15-20. [ 2 ] 方永德 . 美国英语中的种族贬语 [ J ] . 外国语, 1995(1):68-72. * 参考文献类型标识: [N] 报纸文章; [ J ] 期刊文章; [ M ] 专著; [ D ] 学位论文; [ C ] 论文集;

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Contents The Noun Phrase The Verb Phrase The Clause Text Structure Vocabulary

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The Noun Phrase (1) I.Introduction: structure of the noun phrase: 1.determiner and or enumerator 2.pre-head modification 3.head noun 4.post-head modification 5.pronouns II. Pre-modification: 1.Definition 2.Examples

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III. Practical work on pre-modification: Identify pre-modifiers in the noun phrase of the texts and relate the findings to the subject of the text: what is their purpose? Test 1 1.the amount of pre-modifiers 2.the size of the noun phrase 3.use of proper nouns: Louis, Pompadour (lover of Louis XV of France) , Regency 英国 1810-1830 年的摄政时期 ,

4.technical terms: shag粗毛, gilt, marquetry, Boulle,镶嵌细工 5.use of modifiers of Latin origin: ecru米色. Bohemian吉普赛人的 6.unmodified treatment of verbs 7.narrator’s attitude towards Dorrie Text 2 1.high frequency of the third-person pronoun “she” 2.modifiers devoted to the narrator’s opinion: 3.modifiers devoted to the lady’s opinion: 4.narrator’s negative attitude towards the lady. :

4.technical terms: shag 粗毛 , gilt, marquetry, Boulle, 镶嵌细工 5.use of modifiers of Latin origin: ecru 米色 . Bohemian 吉普赛人的 6.unmodified treatment of verbs 7.narrator’s attitude towards Dorrie Text 2 1.high frequency of the third-person pronoun “ she ” 2.modifiers devoted to the narrator’s opinion: 3.modifiers devoted to the lady’s opinion: 4.narrator’s negative attitude towards the lady.

IV. Post-modification: 1.Definition 2.Function: To supply additional minor message, as done by non-restrictive clause. V. Practical work on post-modification: Identify post-modifiers in the noun phrase of the text and relate the findings to the subject of the text: what is their purpose? Text 3 1.high frequent of trade names: De Bry, Chemex, French Marans, Tiptree “:

IV. Post-modification: 1.Definition 2.Function: To supply additional minor message, as done by non-restrictive clause. V. Practical work on post-modification: Identify post-modifiers in the noun phrase of the text and relate the findings to the subject of the text: what is their purpose? Text 3 1.high frequent of trade names: De Bry, Chemex, French Marans, Tiptree “

Little Scarlet”, Cooper’s Vintage Oxford, Norwegian Heather Honey, Fortnum’s, Queen Annue, Minton :

Little Scarlet”, Cooper’s Vintage Oxford, Norwegian Heather Honey, Fortnum’s, Queen Annue, Minton

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The Noun Phrase (2) I. Articles: 1.definite articles 2.indefinite articles II. Practical work on articles: 1.Identify the articles in the texts. 2.Identify the part of extract where a repetitive syntactic pattern of articles is to be found. 3.Comment on the according stylistic effect.

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III.Pronouns: denoting first-person singular IV. Practical work on pronouns denoting the first-person singular: Identify and explain the shifts of usage of pronouns in the text. V. Pronouns: denoting the first-person plural VI. Practical work on pronouns denoting the first-person plural: Identify the use of we referring to inclusive, exclusive, or singular or plural in the text and relate the findings to the subject of the text: what is their purpose?

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The Noun Phrase (3) I. Pronouns: the second person (1): you used to address one person you used to address more persons effect of the referent of you in actual usage. II. Practical work on the use of you : 1.Identify the cases of pronoun you r in the text to see whether they have the same reference. 2.Explain the shifts in usage within the text

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III. Pronouns: the second person (2): 1. you used to refer to any or all people in an unspecific way 2. you used to refer to speaks themselves in an impersonal way IV. Identify the cases of pronoun you in the text to see whether they have the same reference: 1. singular, specific person 2. plural, specific person 3. general, direct address 4. general, unspecific address

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The Verb Phrase (1) I.Introduction:the structure of the verb phrase: 1.main verb 2.auxiliary 3.negative particles 4.tense 5.finite verb phrases 6.non-finite verb phrases II.Narrative time, story time and tense

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1.Identify the times of narrating, narrative, and internal time relationships in the text. 2.Does tense correlate with time in English? IV. Simple and compound verb phrases: Definition V. Practical work on simple and compound verb phrases: 1.Identify the verb phrases in the text. 2. Are they simple or compound, finite or non-finite? What are the time-schemes?

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The Verb Phrase (2) I. Uses of the present tense: habitual action general truth narration of past events as-it-happens narrative future II. Identify the present-tense forms in the text to see whether they are habitual, general truth, simple present, or be + -ing. How do they pattern?

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III. The passive: Definition IV. Practical work on simple and compound verb phrases: Identify the passive verb construction in the text to see what or who is the subject of the verb. V. The imperative: Definition VI. Practical work on the imperatives: Identify the imperatives in the text to see their force and function.

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The Verb Phrase (3) I. Non-finite verb forms: ‘to+ base’ form (the infinitive) 1.Definition 2. ‘to + be + past participle’ form 3. ‘to + have + past participle’ form II. Practical work on the ‘to+ base’ forms: 1.Identify the ‘to+ base’ forms in a given text. 2.What is their effect when used in non-finite sentences.

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III. Non-finite verb forms: ‘-ing’ forms: IV. Practical work on the ‘ -ing ’ forms: 1.Identify the‘ -ing ’ forms in the text. 2.What is their effect when used in non-finite sentences. V. Non-finite verb forms: time and tense: VI. Practical work on time and tense denoted by non-finite verb forms: 1.Identify the finite and non-finite verb phrases in the text. 2.What is the relationship between tense and/or finiteness and time?

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The Clause (1) I. Introduction to syntax: a. Subject NP + VP + X b. Subject NP + VP + X (O/ C NP) c. Subject NP + VP + X (O/ C AdjP) d. X (Av) + NP + VP e. NP + VP + X (Av) f. NP + VP g. NP + VP + X (O/C) + Av h. VP

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1.information: given and new 2.simple sentence 3.coordination 4.subordination II. Analyzing clause structure: Definition III. Practical work on clause structure: 1.Identify in the text the sentences with a similar grammatical structure. 2.Comment on the stylistic effect.

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The Clause (2) I. The relationship between S and V: S V X (O C) X V S S V X (C O) II. Practical work on the relationship between S and V: 1.Identify in the text the types of things that are placed in S position. 2.What are their relationships to V?

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III. Relative size of syntactic elements: light X elements: IV. Practical work on the relative size of syntactic elements: light X elements: Identify in the text the S and X elements and compare their relative size. V. Obligatory X elements (transitivity) VI. Practical work on obligatory X elements: 1.Identify in the text the verbs 2.Are they purely transitive, or can they be used with or without X?

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The Clause (3) I. Expansion of X elements: II. Practical work on expansion of X elements: 1.Describe in the text the S V X distribution. 2.Comment on the stylistic effect. III. Heavy S and X elements before the verb: IV. Practical work on heavy S and X elements before the verb:

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Identify in the text the preverbal S and X elements. What is their effect? V. Placement of adverbials in the clause: VI. Practical work on the placement of adverbials in the clause: 1.Identify in the text the adverbial elements. 2.Can you find some in an abnormal position. 3.Account for their effect.

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The Clause (4) I. Main clauses II. Practical work on main clause: 1.Identify in the text the frequent use of sentences with only main clause. 2.Relate the findings to the literary effect the author expects to produce. III. Coordination: IV. Practical work on coordination: 1.Identify the patterns of clause linkage in the text.

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2.Which is the most frequent pattern? 3.What is the according stylistic effect? V. Subordination and the sentence: VI. Practical work on subordination and the sentence: 1.Identify and separate the sentences and clauses in the text. 2.What correlation do you find between these things? 3. Comment on the way the text is patterned.

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The clause (5) I. Ambiguity in syntax: II. Practical work on ambiguity in syntax: 1.Spot in the text the ambiguities. 2.Can you see any other marked linguistic features that suggest why the author write ambiguously? III. Prepositions: IV. Practical work on prepositions: 1.Identify in the text the prepositions. 2.What are their functions and purpose?

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V. Interrogatives: VI. Practical work on interrogatives: 1.Identify in the text the questions. 2.To whom are they addressed and what is their function? 3.Identify in a given text of third-person narration the questions. 4.What is the effect created by the use of interrogative structure?

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Text Structure (1) I. Introduction to text structure: cohesion and coherence 1.Difference in notion between cohesion and coherence 2.Kinds of cohesive devices 3.Coherence: structural mimicry/ predictability of form

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II. Information structure: given to new III. Practical work on information structure: 1.Analyze the text the informational structure in terms of given and new, pronoun replacement, expansion and reduction of noun phrases. 2.How does this fit with the stylistic effect of the text? (For example, follow through subsequent mentions of proper names – what kind of structures do they appear in first, and what subsequently?)

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IV. Ellipsis: 1.Definition 2.Examples: V. Practical work on ellipsis: 1.Identify in the text the ellipsis. 2.To what extent are they a product of the type of language being represented, and to what extent do they constitute a deliberate stylistic effect by the writer?

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Text Structure (2) I. Practical work on cohesion and coherence: 1.Spot in the text the features of cohesion and coherence. 2.What are the effects of the way the information is presented in each case? II. Coherent models: thought III. Practical work on structure of thought: 1.Identify in the text the structure of thought.

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2.Are the elements linked by cohesion or coherence? IV. Coherent models: other languages Definition V. Practical work on the structure of other languages: 1.Identify in the text the departure from expected English grammar and text structure under the influence of other languages. 2.Suggest why the writer may have made use of them?

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VI. Coherent models: speech 1.Speech syntax: intercalated clauses 2.Speech syntax: coordination and relative clauses VII. Practical work on the structure of speech: 1.Identify in the text the patterns of clause linkage and the relatives. 2.Comment on the purpose of the author in using these patterns.

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Vocabulary (1) I. Introduction to vocabulary: 1.Contributing factors to current English 2.Sources of current English a.       Ancient Greek b.       Latin c.       Old French d.       Old German e.       Old Norse f.        French

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II. Register: use of romance vocabulary III. Practical work on the use of romance vocabulary 1.Identify in the text the romance vocabulary. 2.What is its effect? IV. Register: use of ‘long’ words V. Practical work on the use of ‘long’ words: 1.Identify in the text the questions. 2.Comment on the effect.

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Vocabulary (2) I. Word-formation: bound morphemes Definition: a. free morphemes b. bound morphemes II. Practical work on bound morphemes: 1.Spot in a given text the unfamiliar words. 2.How are they constructed? What is their effect?

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III. Romance: IV. Practical work on Romance: 1.Identify in the text the Romance vocabulary. 2.What is its purpose? V. Semantic fields:: VI. Practical work on semantic fields: 1.Identify in the text the semantic fields. 2. What is the effect created by the use of words of the given semantic fields?

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Vocabulary (3) I. Collocation: 1.Definition 2.Examples II. Practical work on collocation: 1.Spot in a the text the words you expect in collocation, and those you don’t. 2.Can you account for the patterns of expected or unexpected collocations?

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III. Synonyms: 1.the distinction of synonyms on the basis of their reference 2.the distinction of synonyms on the basis of their register: a. More formal words b. Less formal words IV. Practical work on synonyms: 1. Substitute some synonyms for the adjectives or verbs in a given text.. 2.Can you account for the effect thus created?