Collecting Qualitative Data Chapter 7 This
product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:: By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Identify the five process steps in collecting qualitative data Identify different sampling approaches to selecting participants and sites Describe the types of permissions required to gain access to participants and sites Recognize the various types of qualitative data you can collect Identify the procedures for recording qualitative data Recognize the field issues and ethical considerations that need to be anticipated in administering the data collection Five Steps in the Process of Data Collection: Five Steps in the Process of Data Collection Identify participants and sites Gain access to individuals and sites Identify what types of information will answer your research questions Design protocols or instruments for collecting and recording information Administer the data collection Who Will Be Studied: Purposeful Sampling: Who Will Be Studied: Purposeful Sampling Random “ Quantitative ” Sampling Select representative individuals To generalize from sample to population To make “ claims ” about the population To build/test “ theories ” that explain the population Purposeful “ Qualitative ” Sampling Select people/sites who can best help us understand our phenomenon To develop detailed understanding That might be “ useful ” information That might help people “ learn ” about the phenomenon That might give voice to “ silenced ” people Types of Purposeful Sampling: Types of Purposeful Sampling When Does Sampling Occur? Before Data Collection After Data Collection Has Started What is the intent? To develop many perspectives Extreme Case Sampling To describe particularly troublesome or enlightening cases Typical Sampling To describe what is “ typical ” to those unfamiliar with the case What is the intent? To take advantage of whatever case unfolds Opportunistic Sampling Snowball Sampling To explore confirming or disconfirming cases Confirming/ Disconfirming Sampling Maximal Variation Sampling To generate a theory or concept Critical Sampling To describe some subgroup in depth Homogenous Sampling To describe a case that illustrates “ dramatically ” the situation Theory or Concept Sampling To locate people or sites to study Sample Size: Sample Size Small for in-depth perspective 1 individual 4 cases 20–30 interviews Permissions That Are Needed: Permissions That Are Needed Gain permission from Institutional Review Board (IRB) Gain permission from “ gatekeepers ” at the research site Gatekeepers are individuals at the site who provide site access, help researcher locate people and identify places to study. The gatekeeper may require written information about the project. Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Permissions: Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Permissions Qualitative studies are usually conducted at the research site. The researcher has personal contact with the participants through in-depth interviewing and prolonged observing. Qualitative studies are personal in nature and are not centered on variables or measures. Qualitative researchers use video cameras or audio recorders to record in-depth interviews for transcription. Information for the Gatekeeper: Information for the Gatekeeper Why their site was chosen What time and resources are required What will be accomplished at the site What potential there is for your presence to be disruptive What individuals at the site will gain from the study How you will use and report the results Observations: Observations An observation is the process of gathering first-hand information by observing people and places at a research site. Observational roles Participant observer: An observational role adopted by researchers when they take part in activities in the setting they observe Nonparticipant observer: An observer who visits a site and records notes without becoming involved in the activities of the participants Observational roles can be changed. The Process of Observing: The Process of Observing Obtain the required permissions needed to gain access to the site Ease into the site slowly by looking around, getting a general sense of the site, and taking limited notes, at least initially Identify who or what to observe, when to observe, and how long to observe Determine, initially, your role as an observer The Process of Observing (cont’d): The Process of Observing (cont ’ d) Conduct multiple observations over time to obtain the best understanding of the site and the individuals Design some means for recording notes during an observation Descriptive field notes describe the events, activities, and people Reflective field notes record personal reflections that relate to their insights, hunches, or broad themes that emerge When complete, slowly withdraw from the site Interviews: Interviews Types: One-on-one, phone, e-mail, focus group General open-ended questions that are asked allow the participant to: Create options for responding Voice their experiences and perspectives Information is recorded, then transcribed for analysis. Interview Procedures: Interview Procedures Identify the interviewees Determine the type of interview you will use (e.g., focus group, one-on-one) Take brief notes during the interview Locate a quiet, suitable place Obtain consent from the interviewee to participate in the study Interview Procedures (cont’d): Interview Procedures (cont ’ d) During the interview, have an interview plan using your interview protocol, but be flexible Use probes to follow up on areas of interest Include possible probes in your interview protocol During the interview, design probes as you listen to what the participant is talking about Be courteous and professional when the interview is over Structured, Unstructured and Semi-Structured Interviews: Structured, Unstructured and Semi-Structured Interviews Approach to Data Collection Type of Response Options to Questions Types of Interviews Leading to Data Quantitative Closed- Ended Structured/ Semi-Structured Interviews Scores to Answers Qualitative Open- Ended Unstructured Interviews Transcription of Words Documents: Documents Public and private records Good source for text data Obtain permission before using documents Optically scan documents when possible Audiovisual materials: Audiovisual materials Determine the material that can provide evidence to address your research questions Determine if the material is available and obtain permission to use it Check the accuracy and authenticity of the material if you do not record it yourself Collect the data and organize it Recording Data Using Protocols: Recording Data Using Protocols Interview protocols: A form designed by the researcher that contains instructions for the process of the interview, the questions to be asked, possible probes associated with each question, and space to take notes on responses from the interviewee Observation protocols: A form designed by the researcher before data collection that is used for taking fieldnotes during an observation Field Issues in Data Collection: Field Issues in Data Collection Sufficient access to the site for data collection Sufficient time for data collection Limit initial collection to one or two observations or interviews Time is needed to establish a substantial database Observational role Building rapport with participants Obtaining permission to use documents and audiovisual materials Ethical Issues: Ethical Issues Informing participants of purpose Refraining from deceptive practices Sharing your role as researcher Being respectful of the research site Giving back or reciprocity Using ethical interview practices Maintaining confidentiality Collaborating with participants