Computer Science 1A

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Presentation Transcript

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1 Chapter Information System

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OBJECTIVES Information Systems Explain why information systems are so essential in business today. Define an information system from both a technical and a business perspective, and distinguish between computer literacy and information systems literacy. Apply a four-step method for business problem solving to solve information system-related problems.

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Assess how information systems will affect business careers in accounting, finance, management, marketing, operations management, and information systems and identify the information systems skills and knowledge essential for all business careers. OBJECTIVES (Continued) Information Systems

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Information Systems Problems with the traditional business systems Problem: Declining revenue from traditional sales channels, declining customer base, increasing costs. Solutions: MLB (Major League Baseball) Web sites and cell phone ticketing enable electronic ticketing and delivery of online information and games, which increase sales. SAS customer analysis software and Web site tracking tools help identify good sales prospects. Demonstrates IT’s role in reducing cost, opening new sales channels, and building community with customers. Illustrates the emerging digital firm landscape where businesses can use tools to analyze critical data.

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Information Systems Problems with the traditional business systems Visit the Major League Baseball Web site at www.mlb.com Watch a video on the home page Subscribe to a free newsletter from the Fan Forum Find a jersey from your favorite team in the Shop Visit the Web site of your favorite MLB team How does having a central Web site run all team sites help MLB? What business objectives does this Web site serve? Interactive Session: Major League Baseball

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The Role of Information Systems in Business Today In 2005, more wireless phone accounts were opened than telephone land lines installed More than 35 million people receive their news online; 32 million Americans read blogs Internet advertising continues to grow at more than 30 percent per year New laws require businesses to store more data for longer periods Changes in business result in changes in jobs and careers How Information Systems Are Transforming Business Information Systems

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Information Systems Operational excellence New products, services, and business models Customer and supplier intimacy Improved decision making Competitive advantage Survival Business Objectives of Information Systems The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

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Information Systems Operational Excellence: Improved efficiency results in higher profitability Information systems and technologies help to improve higher levels of efficiency and productivity Wal-Mart is the champion of combining information systems and best business practices to achieve operational efficiency—and $285 billion in sales in 2005 Wal-Mart is the most efficient store in the world as a result of digital links between its suppliers and stores The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

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Information Systems Information systems and technologies enable firms to create new products, services, and business models A business model includes how a company produces, delivers, and sells its products and services The music industry has seen drastic changes in business models in recent years Apple has been very successful at introducing new products and adopting a new business model New products, services, and business models: The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

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Information Systems Customers who are served well become repeat customers who purchase more Close relationships with suppliers result in lower costs The Mandarin Oriental in Manhattan uses information systems and technologies to foster an intimate relationship with its customers including keeping track of their preferences JCPenney uses information systems to enhance its relationship with its supplier in Hong Kong Customer and supplier intimacy: The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

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Information Systems A company’s bottom line can be hurt by managers being swamped with data that are neither timely nor helpful, forcing them to use guesswork Real-time data have improved the ability of managers to make decisions Verizon uses a Web-based digital dashboard to update managers with real-time data on customer complaints, network performance, and line outages Improved decision making: The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

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Information Systems Achieving the previously mentioned business objectives often leads to competitive advantage Advantages over competitors include charging less for superior products, better performance, and better response to suppliers and customers Dell Computer is one of the best examples of establishing competitive advantage as the company has continued to be profitable during a time when PC prices have been falling steadily Competitive advantage: The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

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Information Systems Businesses may need to invest in information systems out of necessity Necessity arises from keeping up with competitors, such as when Citibank introduced ATMs Necessity also arises from federal and state regulations, such as the Toxic Substances Control Act and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Survival: The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

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Interactive Session: Business Objectives In your experience, what firms have achieved: Operational excellence New products, services, and business models Customer and supplier intimacy Improved decision making Competitive advantage Survival Did information systems and technologies play a role in these achievements? Information Systems The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

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Perspectives on Information Systems and Information Technology Information technology is the hardware and software a business uses to achieve its objectives An information system consists of components that support decision making and control, and help with analysis, visualization, and product creation Information refers to data shaped into a meaningful and useful form Data are streams of raw facts representing events and occurrences What Is an Information System? Information Systems

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Perspectives on Information Systems and Information Technology What Is an Information System? Information Systems Activities in an information system that produce information: Input Processing Output Feedback Think of an information system you have experienced recently. Describe the inputs, processing, outputs, and feedback in the system.

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It Isn’t Simply Technology: The Role of People and Organizations Information systems literacy vs. computer literacy Organizations People Technology Dimensions of Information Systems Information Systems

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Information Systems Are More Than Computers It Isn’t Simply Technology: The Role of People and Organizations Information Systems

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It Isn’t Simply Technology: The Role of People and Organizations Information Systems Are More Than Computers Information Systems Figure 1-3 Using information systems effectively requires an understanding of the organization, people, and information technology shaping the systems. An information system provides a solution to important business problems or challenges facing the firm.

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It Isn’t Simply Technology: The Role of People and Organizations UPS Competes Globally with Information Technology Information Systems Discuss the following questions: What are the inputs, processing, and outputs of UPS’s package tracking system? What technologies are used? How are these technologies related to UPS’s business strategy? What problems do these technologies solve? What would happen if these technologies were not available?

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Understanding Information Systems: A Business Problem-Solving Approach Few business problems are simple or straightforward Most business problems involve a number of major factors that can be categorized as organization, technology, and people The Problem-Solving Approach Information Systems

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Understanding Information Systems: A Business Problem-Solving Approach Problem identification Solution design Choice Implementation Problem solving is a process, not an event A Model of the Problem-Solving Process Information Systems

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Problem Solving Is a Continuous Four-Step Process Information Systems Figure 1-4 During implementation and thereafter, the outcome must be continually measured and the information about how well the solution is working is fed back to the problem solvers. In this way, the identification of the problem can change over time, solutions can be changed, and new choices made, all based on experience. Understanding Information Systems: A Business Problem-Solving Approach

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Understanding Information Systems: A Business Problem-Solving Approach Four elements of critical thinking: Maintaining doubt and suspending judgment Being aware of different perspectives Testing alternatives and letting experience guide Being aware of organizational and personal limitations The Role of Critical Thinking in Problem Solving Information Systems

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Understanding Information Systems: A Business Problem-Solving Approach When firms cannot achieve their business objectives, these objectives become challenges Information systems often present solutions to these challenges The Connection Between Business Objectives, Problems, and Solutions Information Systems

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Information Systems Success in today’s job market requires a broad set of skills Job candidates must have problem-solving skills as well as technical skills so that they can carry specific tasks The service sector will account for 95 percent of the new jobs that are created or open up by 2012 Information Systems and Your Career

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Information Systems Accounting Finance Marketing Operations Management in Services and Manufacturing Information Systems Outsourcing How Information Systems Will Affect Business Careers Information Systems and Your Career

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Interactive Session: Sonic Corporation Information Systems Visit Sonic’s Web site at www.sonicdrivein.com How does Sonic’s Web site enhance its business? Who is the target audience of the Web site? Is there more than one target audience? What would make the Web site better? How does Sonic’s Web site compare to the sites of its competitors, such as McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, Checkers, and Jack in the Box? Information Systems and Your Career

What is Knowledge Work?: 

What is Knowledge Work? “The creation, distribution or application of knowledge.” Thomas Davenport “How an organization creates, acquires, shares & uses knowledge” Peter Senge, “Fifth Discipline” “Knowledge is the capacity for effective action.” Peter Senge, “Fifth Discipline” Information Systems

Who are Knowledge Workers?: 

Who are Knowledge Workers? Information Systems “Knowledge workers have high degrees of expertise, education or experience, and the primary purpose of their jobs involves the creation, distribution, or application of knowledge. Knowledge workers think for a living. They live by their wits-any heavy lifting on the job is intellectual, not physical. They solve problems they understand and meet the needs of customers, they make decisions, and they collaborate and communicate with other people in the course of doing their own work.” Thomas Davenport “Everyone is a knowledge worker to some degree, and knowledge work is everyone’s responsibility, not just that of a few people.” Peter Drucker Making knowledge available to others is the central activity of the knowledge-creating company. It takes place continuously and at all levels of the organization.

Common Attributes of High Performing Knowledge Workers: 

Common Attributes of High Performing Knowledge Workers Information Systems Like autonomy Usually have good reasons for doing what they do Value their own knowledge, and don’t share it easily Work best when working with other people in social networks Are better led by example than by explicit management Can process information flow well

Knowledge Worker Skills?: 

Knowledge Worker Skills? Information Systems Speed reading Business writing Running meetings effectively Processing information and knowledge – on paper, in telephone conversations and voice messages, and electronically Using of databases, web sites, publications and formal training/education Problem solving Calculated risk taking Strong networking Thomas Davenport, 2005

The knowledge chain: 

The knowledge chain Information Systems

Knowledge Worker: 

Knowledge Worker Information Systems Segmentation on Interdependence and Complexity Thomas H. Davenport, 2005

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations: 

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations Information Systems Advanced Basic Intermediate Listening Focuses on speaker/sender Gives and receives feedback Uses proper grammar (written/oral) Suspends judgment until fully understands the issue Communicates to a diverse audience Communicates facts, not just opinions Can write basic procedures Represents SFS/UW professionally to external audience Facilitates resolution of communication issues Edits reports for clarity and understanding Drafts written materials for external audiences Shares relevant information to help build understanding and connection Writes and presents complete, precise and easy to follow reports Holds difficult, highly sensitive and complicated conversations Communication

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations: 

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations Information Systems Advanced Basic Intermediate Presentation and Training Skills Can give team updates within SFS as needed Can talk about what you do in a staff meeting Line monitoring Can train another on what you do Knows subject matter enough to answer Present to groups outside SFS in professional manner Relies on others for help with presentations (curriculum/equipment) Answers related questions Can teach/train from prepared curriculum Develops curriculum ideas and delivery by working with others May rely on others for help with presentation set-up/ equipment/ curriculum Uses presentation tools as necessary (flip charts, PPT, etc) Plan and deliver presentation in a professional manner to any size/type of group Develops course curriculum independently Ability to flex training/presentation in the moment, based on audience needs Plan and deliver presentation in an expert manner to any size Leads group to develop ideas and delivery approach for presentation Develops and uses sophisticated presentation tools

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations: 

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations Information Systems Advanced Basic Intermediate Computing Word Open, Close, & Save Files Create Documents Basic Formatting (font, margins) Excel Open, Close, & Save Files Create Documents Basic Formatting (font, margins) Power Point Open, Close, & View Presentations Visio Word Advanced Printing Add Graphics Intermediate Formatting (Headers, footers, bullets, numbering) Excel Basic Arithmetic Formulas Format Cells Insert Columns/Rows Power Point Create Simple Presentations (Text, graphics) Visio Open, Close, & Save Files Create Simple Flow Charts Word Create Tables, Mail Merge, Forms and Templates Excel Advanced Formulas Create Pages, Forms, Graphs/Charts Power Point Create Complex Presentations (Interactive graphics, links) Use Effective Design Principles Visio Create Complex Flow Charts

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations: 

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations Information Systems Advanced Basic Intermediate Computing (continued) Hardware Change Toner Clear Printer Jams General Use email, including attachments Use Calendar/set up meetings Web navigation Lookup information in UW and external systems (Campus Partners, FIN, etc) Enter info into a database, run queries and reports Hardware General Set up groups lists in Oracle Use the Web as a research tool Analyze information on UW and external systems Set up queries and tables in simple databases Hardware Troubleshoot Issues Setup Equipment General Web page and form development (computing only) Teach/train use of, and extract data from, UW and external systems Design and Program complex databases

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations: 

Knowledge Worker Skills—Categories and Expectations Information Systems

Knowledge Worker Skills?: 

Knowledge Worker Skills? Information Systems Advanced Basic Intermediate Leadership* Take initiative/be proactive Be accountable Know and understand goals and mission of SFS/FM/UW Is a role model Present ideas to get needs met Adaptable to change Willing to learn/ develop/ grow Manages time/workload well Organized Supportive of others Shares knowledge Follows SFS code of ethics Manages change well Identify and respond to problems and make recommendations for solutions and opportunities Knows how the SFS works across units Knows how SFS works with process partners Knows how SFS fits in across institution Implements strategic plan Provides guidance to others Understands how your job affects others Practice QI qualities and behaviors Motivate, recognize, support and encourage co-workers and/or staff to reach their full potential. Seeks involvement beyond SFS/FM for greater impact Creates vision and long term goals for unit/with SFSL Plans, Leads, Implements and responds to impact of change Strategic mapping/planning leadership Identifies initiatives Leads work groups Delegates work

Knowledge Worker Skills?: 

Knowledge Worker Skills? Information Systems

Knowledge Worker Skills?: 

Knowledge Worker Skills? Information Systems Process Improvement and Problem Solving Advanced Basic Intermediate Know how to improve a process Identify problem Clearly define problem Answer questions Know your limits of authority in improving/changing an existing process Know basic process w/in assigned duties Showing initiative in an effort to resolve a problem Understand measures Understand process partner relationships Gather data Know and use QI tools at the right time Use a dashboard to improve processes Know resources Document processes Use measures to identify opportunities for improvement Generate alternative solutions Benchmark Look for patterns Root cause analysis Understand big picture/questions Involve right people Develop strong process partner relationships Participate in FM process improvements Lead FM process improvements Develop and monitor measures Improve process partner relationships Solve the problem the right way/coordinate solutions Communicate to all who need to know (up, down, across) See long term/future impact