Slide 1: Decent Work in Agriculture for
Plantation Workers in the Philippines Slide 2: OBJECTIVES OF THE REPORT
A. CONTRIBUTION TO THE GENERAL UNDERSTANDING OF DECENT WORK IN PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURAL PLANTATIONS
B. TO INVITE GOVERNMENT, INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND PEOPLE’S MOVEMENTS TO LOOK INTO USEFULNESS OF DECENT WORK AS A BASIS FOR FUTURE PROGRAMMES AND ORGANIZING THEIR WORK;
C. RESPOND POSITIVELY TO DECENT WORK DEFICITS IN THE PLANTATION SECTOR Slide 3: WHAT IS DECENT WORK
Productive work in which rights are protected, which generates an adequate income, with adequate social protection.
It also means sufficient work, in the sense that all should have full access to income earning opportunities.
It marks the high road to economic and social development, a road in which employment income and social protection can be achieved without compromising workers’ rights and social standards. Slide 4: BACKGROUND ON DECENT WORK
THE CENTRAL OBJECTIVE AND ORGANIZING FRAMEWORK OF THE ILO SINCE 1999;
IT HAS A NORMATIVE (KEY LABOR STANDARDS) AND VOLUNTARISTIC (SOCIAL DIALOGUE & BARGAINING) DIMENSIONS;
CONDITION FOR SUCCESSFUL GLOBALIZATION
FRAMEWORK WHERE DIVERGING INTERESTS OF VARIOUS SOCIAL CLASSES CAN CONVERGE;
PRODUCE SOCIAL AS WELL AS ECONOMIC DIVIDENDS Slide 5: DECENT WORK AS STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF THE ILO TO ERADICATE POVERTY, NEEDS THE FOLLOWING:
RIGHTS AT WORK
SOCIAL DIALOGUE Slide 6: STATISTICAL INDICATORS TO MEASURE DECENT WORK
STABILITY AND SECURITY AT WORK
COMBINING WORK AND FAMILY LIFE
FAIR TREATMENT IN EMPLOYMENT
SAFE WORK ENVIRONMENT
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXT OF DECENT WORK Slide 7: Based on the above definition, six dimensions of decent work have been conceptualized representing quantitative and qualitative attributes of labor, as follows:
opportunities for work
freedom of choice of employment
equity in work
security at work
dignity at work Slide 8: PHILIPPINES BASIC FACTS: TOTAL AREA: 30 M HAS. (2% OF THE WORLD’S TOTAL LAND AREA)
AREA FOR AGRI. – 9.2 M. HAS. UTILIZED DECREASED BY 8% SINCE 1991
NO. OF FARMS: 4.5 M DECREASED BY 2% SINCE 1991
FARM SIZE: MIXTURE OF SMALL, MEDIUM AND LARGE FARMS.
AGRICULTURE DOMINATED BY SMALL FARMS (90%): AVERAGE OF 2 HAS. TO 5 HAS.
PROPORTION OF SMALL FARMS HAS BEEN EXPANDING DUE TO AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAMS WHICH DELIMITS OWNERSHIP TO MAXIMUM OF FIVE HECTARES
TYPICAL FARMING SYSTEM IS PLANTED WITH MAJOR CROPS, RICE, CORN AND COCONUT AND SOME COMMERCIAL OR HIGH VALUE CROPS.
TOTAL FARMS UNDER CULTIVATION – 8.9 HAS. Slide 9: Gross National Product and Gross Domestic Product by Industrial Origin1st Qtr 2002 - 1st Qtr 2005(at Constant 1985 Prices and Current Prices, in million PhP) Slide 10: Household Population 15 Years Old and Over by Employment Status July 2002 - April 2005 Slide 11: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY SEX, BY REGION
1998- 2002 (PERCENT) Slide 12: DISTRIBUTION OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND EMPLOYMENT SIZE
(YEAR 2000, BY REGION) Slide 15: Employed Persons by Major Industry Group January 2004 - April 2005(in thousands) Slide 17: EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN THE PHILIPPINES (IN STATISTICAL DATA)
EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS FROM 1991 TO 1998 Slide 18: Unemployment RateJanuary 1985 to October 2004(in percent) Slide 19: Employed Persons by Major Occupation Group
January 2004 - January 2005
(in thousands) Slide 21: CURRENT REGIONAL DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES(As of June 2005) Slide 22: CURRENT REGIONAL DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES(As of June 2005) Slide 23: COMPARATIVE WAGES IN SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIESAs of June 27, 2005 Slide 26: PHILIPPINE POVERTY SITUATION
HALF OF RURAL POPULATION ARE POOR (BICOL, CENTRAL MINDANAO AND ARMM)
POVERTY THRESHOLD IS LOWER IS RURAL AREAS (11,390) THAN IN URBAN AREAS (P13,131) WITH DIFFERENCE OF 16.9%
SEVERITY OF POVERTY IS FOUND AMONG FARMERS, FISHERS AND LANDLESS FARMWORKERS
COMPARED TO URBAN AREAS, RURAL POVERTY DECLINED AT MUCH SLOWER PACE. Slide 28: ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF AGRICULTURE
MAJOR FOUNDATION OF THE ECONOMY
15% OF GDP IN 2003 OR 637 BILLION PESOS
GROWING BY AT LEAST 4.5% SINCE 2003
ABOUT HALF OF THE POPULATION LIVES IN RURAL AREAS
2/3 DEPENDS ON AGRICULTURE FOR LIVELIHOOD
35% OF EMPLOYED PERSONS IN THE COUNTRY IS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES MAJORITY IN RICE, CORN, COCONUT FARMS, AND SOME LANDLESS FARMWORKERS; Slide 29: NUMBER OF FARMS BY FARM SIZE (IN TERMS OF HECTARES)- 2001-2002 Slide 30: AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF CROP
1997 – 2002 (In thousand Metric Tons) Slide 32: TOP TEN PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS 2003 Slide 33: Annual growth rates of agricultural production (1996-2001) in percent. Slide 34: Agricultural Employment Slide 35: AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT (BY ACTIVITY) – 2002 Slide 36: FEMALE LABOUR FORCE POPULATION (IN 000 PERSONS)
AND PARTICIPATION IN RURAL AREAS BY REGION (IN PERCENT)
(1998-2002) Slide 37: NUMBER OF EMPLOYED, UNEMPLOYED AND UNDEREMPLOYED
FEMALES IN RURAL AREAS (2002)(IN 000 PERSONS) Slide 38: PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE FARM WORKERS BY FARM ACTIVITY
PHILIPPINES (2001) Slide 40: Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Land Acquisition and Distribution. Using the current validated scope of 8.17 million hectares, cumulative land distribution by the DAR and DENR from 1972 to 1996 comes up to 52.91%, or a total of 4,322,474 hectares (Table 1). The bulk of this was accomplished during the term of Agrarian Reform Sec. Ernesto Garilao beginning mid-1992, as only 0.85 M hectares were distributed during the Aquino administration, and 0.07 M hectares during the Marcos years. By the end of 1996, the DAR had distributed 58.25% of the total area it is supposed to cover (Figure 2), with a remaining balance of 1.84 million hectares. Slide 42: Workers Right to Self-Organization and Collective Bargaining
The Right to Self-organization is guaranteed under the Bill of Rights of Article 3 of the Philippine Constitution,
Article 243 of the Labor Code of the Philippines and under the ILO Convention No. 98.
The Article No. 11 of the Labor Code of the Philippines further emphasized on the Policy of the State to protect labor by promoting collective bargaining and free trade unionism.
The law covers all types of workers from commercial, industrial and agricultural to include those in the civil service. Philippine Labor Code,(Azucena C.A. Everyone’s Labor Code, 2001 Ed.) Slide 43: The ILO declaration makes it clear that all ILO member states have an obligation by virtue of their membership to respect, promote and realize the workers’ fundamental rights, defined as: Slide 44: Status on Labor Relations Slide 45: EXISTING LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS
BY REGIONS, PHILIPPINES: MARCH 2002 Slide 46: List of Welfare Benefits included in the Provisions by Type of Benefit in the CBA