The Contemporary Security Challenges in Nigeria-The Place of Diplomacy

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The Contemporary Security Challenges in Nigeria-The Place of Diplomacy


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The Contemporary Security Challenges in Nigeria: The Place of Diplomacy Dr. Oyewole O. Sarumi

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Introduction  Security as an essential concept is commonly associated with the alleviation of threats to cherished values especially the survival of individuals groups or objects in the near future.  Security as the name implies involves the ability to pursue cherished political and social ambitions.

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 According to Palme 1992:9 “there is a correlation between security and survival”. Whereas survival is an essential condition security is viewed as safety confidence free from danger fear doubt among others.  Hence security is ‘survival-plus and the word plus could be understood from the standpoint of being able to enjoy some freedom from life-determining threats and some life choices Booth 2007: 15.

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Introduction  The imperative of peace in the development of a nation needs not to be over-emphasized. One can say without any fear of contradiction that any nation or state where peace does not exist relatively can hardly witness any progress to say the least.  It follows that there exists an undeniable relationship between peace and development. The crave for democracy globally is hinged on providing leadership capable of engendering nation-building.

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 While acknowledging that Nigeria is not the only country entangled in security challenge her case is worrisome as the rising spate of insecurity serves as albatross to any meaningful development.  This discourse examines the nexus between peace and development and assesses the implications of security challenge in Nigeria with some useful recommendations for those consideration.

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What Our Constitution Says  Our Constitution 1999 or whatever Constitution we operate under specifically states in Chapter 12 Section 14 FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES AND DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY that:  13 It shall be the duty and responsibility of all organs of government and of all authorities and persons exercising legislative executive or judicial powers to conform to observe and apply the provisions of this Chapter of this Constitution.  14 1 The Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be a State based on the principles of democracy and social justice.

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 2 It is hereby accordingly declared that:  a Sovereignty belongs to the people of Nigeria from whom government through this Constitution derives all its powers and authority  b The security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government: and  c The participation by the people in their government shall be ensured in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.  From this we see that it is expressly stated in our Constitution that the Governments is ultimately responsible for the security of lives property etc of the people of Nigeria.

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The Objectives of Nigerias National Security Policy  The central pillar of Nigerias national security policy is the preservation of the safety of Nigerians at home and abroad and the protection of the sovereignty of the country as well as her integrity and assets.  Other subordinate goals include:  i. To safeguard the sovereignty independence and territorial integrity of the Nigerian state  ii. The defence of African unity and independence  iii. Non-intervention in the internal affairs of other states  iv. Involvement in regional economic development security and cooperation and  v. Attainment of military self-sufficiency and regional leadership.

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 A cursory look at the above objectives indicates that the Nigerias defence policy is the bedrock for achieving foreign policy and national security policy of Nigeria.  Thus since the focus of the investigation is on micro security – the internal security problems in Nigeria it therefore becomes imperative to assess the extent to which Nigeria has successfully implemented her internal security policy to preserve the safety of Nigerians at home and the protection of the territorial integrity of the country.

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Implementation Of The National Security Policy  In Nigeria the implementation of the national security policy is largely the responsibility of the President National Security Adviser NSA Chief of Defence Staff CDS Chief of Army Staff COAS Chief of Naval Staff CNS and Chief of Air Staff CAS.  The above chain of authority is clearly presented below:-

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Structures For Management Of Nigeria’s National Security - I The President and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces National Security Adviser NSA Chief of Defence Staff CDS Chief of Army Staff COAS Chief of Naval Staff CNS Chief of Air Staff CAS

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Structures For Management Of Nigeria’s National Security - II Ministry of Defence Ministry of Police Affairs and Ministry of Interior: Nigeria Police Force Nigerian prisons Services Nigerian Immigration Services Nigerian Security and Civil Defense Corps Nigerian Customs Services State Security Services National Drug Law Enforcement Agency

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Internal Security  Internal security or IS is the act of keeping peace within the borders of a sovereign state or other self- governing territories. This is done generally by upholding the national law and defending against internal security threats.  Responsibility for internal security may range from police to paramilitary forces and in exceptional circumstances the military itself. Wikipedia

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Threats to Internal security Wikipedia  Threats to the general peace may range from low- level civil disorder large scale violence or even an armed insurgency. Threats to internal security may be directed at either the states citizens or the organs and infrastructure of the state itself and may range from petty crime serious organised crime political or industrial unrest or even domestic terrorism. Foreign powers may also act as a threat to internal security by either committing or sponsoring terrorism or rebellion without actually declaring war.

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Forces and Agencies Wikipedia  Governmental responsibility for internal security will generally rest with an interior ministry as opposed to a defence ministry. Depending on the state a states internal security will be maintained by either the ordinary police or law enforcement agencies or more militarised police forces known as Gendarmerie. Other specialised internal security agencies may exist to augment these main forces such as border guards special police units or aspects of the states List of intelligence agencies. In some states internal security may be the primary responsibility of a secret police force.

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 The level of authorised force used by agencies and forces responsible for maintaining internal security might range from unarmed police to fully armed paramilitary organisations or employ some level of less-lethal weaponry in between. For violent situations internal security forces may contain some element of military type equipment such as non- military armoured vehicles.

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 When we say security are we talking about food insecurity financial insecurity personal security national security etc  We are more concerned about national internal security of Nigerians as far as lives and property and indeed general well-being are concerned.

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 More lives are lost in our country through road crashes call it transport insecurity  diseases which could have been prevented if not for lack of commitment and care by our various governments healthcare insecurity  infant mortality ignorance illiteracy and poverty.  Successive governments stand indicted for causing so many deaths of Nigerians directly and indirectly mostly as a result of massive and unchecked corruption greed selfishness lack of political will and conscience and of course lack of vision and purpose.

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 Internal insecurity is not a problem that is unique to Nigeria. The US the UK and many other countries face the challenges of insecurity within their borders on a daily basis.  The difference between them and Nigeria is how they manage the threats how knowledgeable and prepared they are how they deploy resources against the threats how effective they are how patriotic and united these people are against threats of insecurity.

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Aetiologies of Insecurity in Nigeria  Drawing copiously from existing literature on insecurity in Nigeria the aetiologies of insecurity within Nigeria is twofold:  Remote and  Proximate causes.

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Remote Factors  The remote factors include such causes as follows:  Absence of Institutional Capacity Resulting in Government Failure  The Gaping Chasm of Inequality and Absence of Fairness and Justice  Ethno-Religious Conflicts  Disconnect between the People and Government  Weak and Poorly Funded Military Establishments  Interagency Rivalry  Non-Prosecution of Perpetrators of Violence In Nigeria  Loss of Socio-Cultural and Communal Value System

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Immediate and Proximate Factors  According to Achumba et al the proximate factors that have contributed to the state of insecurity in the country are:  Porous borders  Rural-urban drift  Social irresponsibility of companies resulting in negative externalities which provoke social unrest within their host communities  Unemployment and  Poverty and  Terrorism among others. All these factors combine to create the sultry security situation in the country.

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Bassey 2007:1 bluntly argued: “Conflict is very often the result of the interaction of political economic and social instability frequently stemming from bad governance failed economic policies and inappropriate development programmes which have exacerbated ethnic or religious difference...”

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” “ Selected Areas of Nigeria’s Security Challenges

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 In existence are copious literature materials that chronicle elaborate case studies of insecurity in the country from different informed prisms  This presentation will highlight selected cases of insecurity in the country. Some of these security challenges have been briefly highlighted as follows:

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1. The Niger Delta Crisis  According to Nwagboso 2012 the Niger Delta conflict arose in the early 1990s due to tensions between international oil companies IOCs and some representatives of Niger Delta minority ethnic groups who felt they were being exploited without due compensation from the IOCs Osungade 2008. Thus ethnic and political unrest continued in the region throughout the 1990s and persisted despite the enthronement of democracy in 1999. However competition for oil wealth in the region gave rise to agitations violence and subsequent extra-judicial killing of Ken Saro-Wiwa and nine Ogoni leaders by the Abacha regime Urim 1999

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2. Kidnapping in the South-East Zone of Nigeria  The history of kidnapping in the South-East zone of Nigeria could be traced to hostilities conflicts and violence in the Niger Delta region Nwagboso 2012. Kidnapping which is the act of abducting somebody and keeping him/her as a prisoner in order to get a ransom for his/her release suddenly took on a whole new economic attraction in the South-East of Nigeria. This new black economy thrived in the SouthEast zone especially in Abia and Imo states where prominent indigenes and residents of the states were easy targets.

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3. The failure of security agencies in the country.  In particular the failure of the intelligence services to contain the recurring security breaches. These security agencies appear incapable of matching the sophisticatedness of these miscreants. They discharged their duty unprofessionally and unmotivated. One wonders how they can veritably help the Nigerian government in restoring security to the country. In fact the current trend of violence is imprinting on the psyche of Nigerians that the government security apparatus is incapable of guaranteeing the security and safety of its people.

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4. The judiciary arm of government  Another security challenge comes from the judiciary arm of government of the country. In Nigeria the Judiciary has occasionally compromised cases that concern insecurity and thereby making the law not to act as a deterrent again. This challenge needs to be speedily resolved since many Nigerians have become conditioned to the acts of carnage brigandage looting massacre butchery and bestiality.

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5. Indecisiveness on issues bothering on insecurity on the part of the government  Indecisiveness on issues bothering on insecurity from the part of the Nigerian government is another security challenge. This indecisiveness is not peculiar to the present Nigerian government but it has been an attitude of every federal government since the first republic. The leaders of this country need to cultivate strong political will to oversee this security problem and not appear ever clueless negligent and predictable.

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6. The Hydra-headed Unemployment  Unemployment appears to be the strongest security challenge of the Nigerian government. So alarming is the rate of unemployment in this country. Many Nigerians of whom are in the youth bracket are not gainfully employed.  This situation has continually fanned the embers of insecurity in Nigeria to flames. These youths are frustrated by their unemployed state into perpetrating crimes of various degrees.  The saying goes that ‘a hungry man is an angry man’.

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 Unemployment has driven many Nigerians into various activities that constitute a threat to the country’s security. There have been instances in which young graduates were arrested for being involved in one form of crime or another. Most of these criminal graduates attribute their involvement in these crimes to the unemployment situation in the country. For instance the cover story of The News Magazine 26 September 2011 was captioned “Graduate Bandits on the Prowl”. According to the report most of the graduate robbers that were interviewed argued that they took to crime for want of job.

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 Furthermore due to collapse of infrastructures including electricity supply and good road network that is supposed to be taken care of by the government small and medium scale businesses which provide employment opportunities for jobless people are fast eroding. Many artisans such as furniture makers welders aluminum window fitters tailors and so on who cannot afford power generators are today out of work. In desperation a large chunk of Nigerian youths have taken to riding commercial motorcycles while others are into street hawking just to keep body and soul together.

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7. The issue of lop-sided development of the country.  Another of these security challenges is the issue of lop-sided development of the country. As Nwadialor 2011 rightly pointed out “the deliberate concentration of Nigeria’s capital resources to the development of a few cities in the name of federal and state capitals culminating in the prevalence of a large population of rural and underdeveloped communities who later came to see the developing cities of Lagos PortHarcourt Kano Enugu Ibadan Kaduna and Calabar to mention but a few as a different country has equally compounded the security of this country

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8. The Boko Haram Terror Machine  the nefarious and virulent activity of the Islamic sect cum terror-group Boko Haram. This terror-group has constituted itself a thorn in the flesh of the current government of Nigeria. The group has claimed responsibility for most bomb explosions and mayhem experienced within the country in recent times. The sheer lawlessness and carnage carried out by these renegade of Islam have heated up the nation and made the country less secure.  Founded in 2002 in Maiduguri by Utaz Mohammed Yusuf the death of their leader in 2009 turned the group into a killing machine that has put paid to the economic development of the Northern geopolitical zones.

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 The activities of Boko Haram have constituted a serious security challenge in contemporary Nigeria as the group has even been linked to the dreaded Al-Qaeda terror group. It has been accepted in many quarters that the criminal and evil agenda of the Boko Haram terror envoys in Nigeria including the introduction of suicide bombing on Nigerian soil has not only paralysed economic and social activities in Maiduguri Abuja Suleja Damaturu Minna among other cities but has also made Nigeria unsafe for investment and tourism.

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9. Ethno-religious conflicts  Ethno-religious conflict is a major causes of insecurity in Nigeria. These have arisen from distrust among various ethnic groups and among the major religions in the country.  This is another internal security threat that started as a sectarian violence but has mutated into very radical but ugly shapes from 1999 till date.

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 Ethno-religious conflict was defined as a situation in which the relationship between members of one ethnic or religious group and another of such group in a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society is characterized by lack of cordiality mutual suspicion and fear and a tendency towards violent confrontation  The crisis in Jos Plateau state was a very complex one as it had ethnic religious sociopolitical and economic undertones.  The recent herdsmen invasion of South West and South East is a case in point.

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10. Porous Borders:  Achumba et al. 2013 observe that the porous frontiers of the country where individual movements are largely untracked have contributed to the level of insecurity in Nigeria. As a result of the porous borders there is an unchecked inflow of Small Arms and Light Weapons into the country which has aided militancy and criminality in Nigeria Hazen and Horner 2007. Available data show that Nigeria host over 70 percent of about 8 million illegal weapons in West Africa Edeko 2011. Also the porosity of the Nigerian borders has aided the uncontrollable influx of migrants mainly young men from neighboring countries such as Republic of Niger Chad and Republic of Benin responsible for some of the criminal acts Adeola and Oluyemi 2012.

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11. Systemic and political Corruption  It has been described as cancer militating against Nigeria ‟s development because corruption deeply threatens the fabric of the Nigeria society Nwanegbo and Odigbo 2013. Corruption hampers economic growth disproportionately burdens the poor and undermines the effectiveness of investment and aid Iyare 2008. It has been described in the academic circles as cancer militating against Nigeria ‟s development corruption is deeply threatening the fabric of the Nigeria society Iduh 2011. The existence of two anti-graft agencies Independence Corrupt Practices Commission ICPC and Economic and Financial Crimes Commission EFCC since 1999 appear to have done little in an effort to totally eradicate corrupt practices in Nigeria. The ICPC and EFCC seem to have come under severe criticisms owing to what appeared as „selective ‟ prosecution in handling corrupt related matters under Obasanjo administration. Iyare 2008:46 argued that the EFCC derailed completely as it became the tool of the Obasanjo government to silence and witch hunt Obasanjo ‟s political opponent.

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12. Hired Assassins:  Another big security challenges facing Nigeria today is the rampart cases of hired assassins. Many Nigerians including law-abiding citizens continue to be cut down by bullets from either the guns of the assassins or the armed robberies and occasionally from the ransom- seeking kidnapers. Although these heinous crimes carry capital punishment in the nations various laws and statues the situation continues to deteriorate as a result of the helplessness of the law enforcement agents to bring the perpetrators of these dastardly acts to book. The Nigeria government has failed in their basic responsibility to the citizens to protect lives and property.

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13. Armed Robbery:  There is no evidence to show that all security measures put on ground by Nigeria government has shown any appreciable drop in the incidents of armed robbery. Rather it would seem armed robbery is on the increase. The situation is such that virtually every Nigerian now lives inside highly walled fences and barricaded compound a sort of self imposed prison yard. In its 2008 report the National Bureau of Statistics NBS said armed robbery cases were more pronounced in seven states in the country. The figures which the NBS said were based on cases reported to the police in 2007 identified the crime-prone states as Oyo Imo Rivers Kano Ogun cross River and the FCT.

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14. Poverty Illiteracy  Poverty in the words of Danbazau 2012 though is a global phenomenon Africa is most hit because 40 of the 76 “chronically deprived countries” in the world are in subSaharan Africa while in Nigeria people living below poverty level increased from 687million to 112.5million between 2004 and 2010. He submits further that “the poverty- security nexus constitutes a ‘tangled web’ with overlapping threats of intervening variables and strands of reverse causality as poverty and violence reinforce one another” he said and cited United States Representative at the United Nations Susan Rice who while examining the implications of poverty to global security said: “poverty breeds insecurity by undermining the capacity of states to deliver basic physical security legitimate governance economic growth and social welfare” Danbazau Ibid.

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Poverty/Illiteracy…Cont’d  On illiteracy it is believed as one of the major causes of insecurity and a very strong factor leading people against their own country. Illiterate northerners came up with the ideology that education is bad. In the end we are faced with an existential threat to the nation several major attacks in the country have been attributed to this group which is nurtured mostly by illiteracy Sani 2013. Yuguda 2013 added a voice by saying that “the psyche of many young people has been destroyed through the collapse of government we have created those criminals through the collapse of educational systems in the northern part of the country.

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 Equally listed as some of the factors that exacerbate poverty and consequently Insecurity are: the neglect of agriculture population explosion indigene-settler dichotomy Incapability of government’s security apparatus at guaranteeing safety and security limited opportunities for women empowerment and lack of political will and strategically sound and articulated policies.

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 Former United States Representative at the United Nations Susan Rice who while examining the implications of poverty to global security said: “Poverty breeds insecurity by undermining the capacity of states to deliver basic physical security legitimate governance economic growth and social welfare”

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15. Unending Call for Re- structuring of Nigeria.  This has been a recurring issues in the polity of this country. It is believed that uneven development lop-sided appointment injustice exploitation suppressive tendencies of the central government etc is responsible for the incessant call for restructuring of Nigeria. The resurgence of Biafra agitation Niger Delta MOSSOP and other nationalities in Nigeria is heating up the polity and straining the tiny thread of peace that presently exist.

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Implications Of The Insecurity Challenges For Nigeria

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 Insecurity as a result of criminal activities individually or corporately creates insecurity and breach of the peace that are likely to or indeed affect legitimate social and economic activities in the country Akintokunbo 2011.

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1. Potential Business Investment  Insecurity discourages business investment as it makes investment unattractive to business investors. This is because it accelerates the cost of doing business either through direct loss of goods and properties or the cost of taking precautions against business risks and uncertainty. These costs could have a negative impact on business development and progress. The thick arrow connecting the insecurity environment and business investment means that insecurity can be a huge blockade to business investment.

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2. Disruption of Existing Business Enterprise  The Nigeria insecurity situation can and in many cases actually halted business operations during the periods of violence and also caused the outright closure of many enterprises especially in the areas or zones where incidences of insecurity is rife and are on daily occurrence in a bid to protect lives of operators and business property.  Insecurity everywhere is a risk factor which business owners and managers dread and wish to avoid by relocating their businesses elsewhere.

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3. Lack of Social Cohesion  Social cohesion amongst the various component units is a desideratum in the process of national political development. This feeling of alienation and mutual distrust as a result of rabid competition for power and positions among federating units in Nigeria has been eliciting widespread discontent and loss of confidence in governments’ programmes and policies with a dire consequence on political stability and by extension democratic consolidation which is a sine qua non for good governance and development. This is almost practically unattainable under the present security challenge in Nigeria.

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4. Spending Good money for Insecurity Mop-up  Unspecified millions of naira is being paid as ransom for the release of victims of kidnapping not forgetting the Central Bank of Nigerian CBN N100 million cash donation the N200 million donations from the combined effort of the opposition governors and also the 50000 from the Christian Association of Nigeria America chapter to reduce the suffering of the victims of regional militia  Ordinarily these are money which is supposed to be channelled to human capital development now being deployed to the rehabilitation of families of the casualties and the renovation of properties destroyed.

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 Any meaningful efforts to address the threats conflicts and security challenges in Nigeria must ultimately place emphasis on the unusual suspects such as the:  Economy poverty inequality unemployment low per capita income Smuggling and  Politics nepotism sectionalism election rigging thuggery and hooliganism. To effectively engage in this diplomacy is a tool to deploy.

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 Diplomacy fundamentally involves dealing with people with tact. Such tact is skilfully employed to the extent that the one who uses it achieves result without insulting the sensibilities of the other person involved.  Diplomacy remains the only veritable tool for achieving peaceful coexistence and achieve an enduring economic development that we desire in Nigeria.  If diplomatic machineries can be employed to resolved our domestic conflicts we would rapidly come out of political crisis and insecurity challenges we found ourselves

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 If our leaders will employ the efficacy of diplomacy in handle matters of national interests especially the spate of insecurity across the country desirable peace will come  Effective use of Diplomacy by our leaders will promote peace through dialogue and not fierce and the interest of all stake holders in our national equation.  This remain the only rational way forward in our present predicaments in Nigeria as we confront these insecurities across the nation.

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“Hard power is the ability to get others to do what we want but soft power is the ability to get others to want what we do”. - Prof Kennedy of the school of Harvard

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The above position is supported by Bassey who incisively argued that:  “...containment or management of conflict entails an understanding of its nature before we can deal effectively with it intellectually emotionally and behaviourally ... structural analysis of conflict violence and warfare focus on how the organization of society shapes action ...” Bassey 2007:143.

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The Fundamental tenet of Diplomacy  It is a fundamental tenet of diplomacy that conflicts can better be settled by ‘brain’ rather than by ‘blood’.  Our leaders must see Negotiations reconciliations and mediations as premier public values in Nigeria.  We can only promote peaceful coexistence in our national politicks with the same moral audacity and political tenacity as we do in our private or family affairs.

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1. Elimination of corruption and entrenchment of justice  Corruption is the antithesis of progress and development as it creates political instability social unrest and crime infested environment it breads inefficiency incompetence mediocrity unethical values and other bas instincts in man such as greed avarice and rapacity. Corruption is so entrenched in Nigeria that it has become a household word and all factors of the economy are caught in corruption web such that Nigeria ranked among the top ten most corrupt nations in the world Onimajesin 2013. Corruption and injustice in Nigeria must be totally eliminated. Nepotism and a culture of impunity must also be eschewed from our national psyche and life.

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2. Creating employment to unemployed youth  Social effects of unemployment include personal hardship depression decay of acquired but unused skills involvement in crime mostly among youth as well as dispute among married people delayed marriages among singles and sometimes broken homes. Joblessness of a husband can lead to infidelity of the wife. Unemployment increases governments’ expenditure or transfer payments where welfare programs are implemented in favour of the unemployed.

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3. Equipment of security agencies  Training and retraining of officers must be carried out on a regular basis with special focus on human rights weapon handling communication skills new interrogation techniques torture is outdated exposure to new equipment and technology. Training in information technology should be made compulsory and the entry requirement should be raised in order to attract the best in the country. A highly disciplined and well-trained force is essential to delivering set targets and goals of providing security for lives and properties. Discipline must be instilled at all levels of the workforce. Re-organization of the security agencies to take them through a new reorientation via re-training of security agents. People should be more security conscious share information with the police and other security agencies.

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4. Good governance  According to Oluwarotimi 2012 good governance is the panacea for the insecurity challenge in Nigeria. She states that the war against insecurity would be won only by raising governance standards that is cultivating the culture of good governance where the government is responsible and accountable to the people. In her view security engagement cannot be separated from good governance. Many others have also linked security to governance system. The general view is that peace and security is determined by good governance.

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 However as Oluwa 2012 has pointed out good governance is a function of effective visionary transparent trustworthy and credible political leadership whose driving force is an improvement in the collective wellbeing of the citizens through well conceived effectively implemented economic policies and human development programmes. The underlying principle of good governance is the focus on people as the ultimate objective of governance.

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 For purpose of clarity “accountable leadership” simply means responsible governance that is a government that recognizes the superior authority of the people and is willing to submit to this authority as may be expressed in the constitution the laws of the land and democratic principles. It can be seen as a means to an end- good governance which in a simple sense can be used to indicate the extent to which the government lives up to the expectations of the people and meets the needs of the generality of the people.

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5. Pursuance of Negotiations reconciliations and mediations  Nigeria leaders must employ the tools of diplomacy such as Negotiations reconciliations and mediations settles discordant tunes among the populace.  Care must be taken to identified credible leaders in the conflict areas and sit with the to resolve the key issues identified.

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As Ebegbulam 2007:8 aptly observes "democracy only thrives where there is security and stability".

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Recommendations  1. The federal government should formulate and effectively implement policies and programmes capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria such as poverty unemployment environmental degradation dearth of infrastructural facilities uneven development among others.  2. The federal government should re-organize the country’s intelligence system and build a capable and more proactive security apparatus in Nigeria. This will add more values in checking incessant bombings robbery kidnapping and violent crimes/crises by hoodlums all over Nigeria

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 3. The government should include Peace Studies and Security Management in school curriculum at primary secondary and tertiary levels in Nigeria. This will enable the Nigerian youths to appreciate the importance of peace and security in a secular state like Nigeria.  4. The government should resuscitate the National Directorate of Employment NDE and reposition agricultural sector so as to play active role in job creation for Nigerian youths.

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 5. There is the need for collective security arrangement by federal state and local governments in Nigeria. This arrangement should produce a committee at village community local state and federal level with the responsibility of providing sensitive security information for security agencies at their areas of operation. This will ultimately assist in identifying criminals their sponsors and hideouts in Nigeria.

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 6. The federal state and local government should be more committed to enhance the quality and standard of education in Nigeria. The three levels of government in Nigeria should collaborate to ensure free education at all levels. This will reduce the spate of ignorance among the youths who engage in numerous violent crimes against the government and the citizens.

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 7. The issue of citizenship or who is qualified to be an indigene of a particular community or state should be urgently reviewed by the federal government. This is important because a Nigerian who has lived up to 20 years in a given community should not be regarded and treated as a non-indigene in the area. This step will ultimately reduce discrimination and crisis in many parts of Nigeria like Jos the Plateau State capital.

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 8. There is the need for government to spread Nigeria’s capital resources to the development of every state of the country no matter its contribution to the economy.  9. The government should embark on a de- radicalisation programme for the many young people in the Northern region who have been erroneously indoctrinated. A programme that goes beyond meting out punitive measures but entails “giving voice and representation to young people in the region”.

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 10. The retraining of Nigerian security agencies especially the intelligence services on sophisticated and combative method of restoring security rather than a complete overhaul of these agencies. The government should recourse to advanced countries like Britain and France in this regard.  11. The judiciary of the country needs to step up and eschew being compromised in all issues especially that of security.

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 12. The government of the country needs to change its approach and attitude regarding security matters. Whatever strategy for restoring security the government has needs to be reviewed since it has proved to be inadequate and ineffective. To do this the government needs to be open to suggestion and advices that can bring about security to Nigeria. Also the government should always be decisive and proactive so as to forestall particular cases of insecurity lingering on.

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 13. We need to rethink and improve on policy and institutional means of dealing with security concerns arising in the country. At the political level the federal state and local governments should evolve programmes of cultural and political education and orientation that seek to enthrone the fundamentals of democracy so that the political contestants as well as the generality of the citizens imbibe principles and practices essential for sustainable democracy. Such programmes must also address specific tendencies that create security breach and concerns in the country.

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Conclusion  The insecurity challenge in Nigeria has assumed a formidable dimension that not only requires a multi- stakeholder approach as it is being touted in various quarters in quelling this conflagration threatening Nigeria’s statehood but also necessitates a revival and reinforcement of moral values and virtues.  The thirst for blood and the preference for violence in expressing pent-up frustration and disenchantment with the state its citizens and national totems may be a pointer to the need to revive moral values and virtues within the socioeconomic political religious and educational institutions in the country.

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 Nigerian leaders politicians and their men and cronies must be forced to evince and uphold moral values and virtues in all their conduct in order to lead by example and to avoid heating up the polity unnecessarily by their conducts and comments which sometimes incite violence in their followers.  This presentation opines that the country should begin to live by the credo that no leader’s political ambition is worth the drop of any Nigerian’s blood.

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 If Nigeria leaders at all levels subscribes to moral values they will not be involved in the manipulation of the electoral process official corruption and other vices which fester the deep wounds already nursed by different segments in the polity.  Consequently the security challenge in Nigeria throws a moral challenge to all and sundry to live by high moral standards that place a value on life that seek peaceful means to conflict resolution by deployment of diplomacy as a veritable tool to promote justice equity fairness and empathy in the country.

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 Security challenges in any environment constitute threat to lives and properties hampered business activities and discourage local and foreign investors all of which stifle and retards development of a country. It is therefore apparent that national security is a desideratum sine qua non for business and economic growth and development of any country.

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Bibliography  Olubukola S. Adesina. Unemployment and Security Challenges in Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 7 April 2013  Akindiyo Oladiran. Security Challenge and Development in Nigeria: Leadership to the Rescue International Journal of Academic Research in Public Policy and Governance Januaruy 2014 Vol. 1 No. 1  Okonkwo Rita Ifeoma Ndubuisi- Okolo Purity Threasa Anagbogu. Security Challenges And The Implications For Business Activities In Nigeria: A Critical Review. Journal of Policy and Development Studies Vol. 9 No. 2 February 2015  Chris. I. Nwagboso. Security Challenges and Economy of the Nigerian State 2007 – 2011. American International Journal of Contemporary Research Vol. 2 No. 6 June 2012.  I.C. Achumba O. S. Ighomereho M. O. M. Akpor-Robaro. Security Challenges in Nigeria and the Implications for Business Activities and Sustainable Development. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development Vol 4 No 2 2013

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Bibliography  Albert Akpo. Security Report On Security Challenges In Nigeria. Culled from  Akintokunbo Adejumo. The Problems and Challenges of Insecurity in Nigeria. Culled from affairs/ 16 December 2011  Emmanuel Nwadialor. Nigeria and security challenges. Culled from on December 30 2011  Godday Odidi. The Problems Challenges And Solutions To Insecurity In Nigeria. Culled from April 18 2014  N. B. Dembo A. Mustapha. Security challenges facing Nigeria: Sep 15 2012

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 Paul Iregbenu Chinecherem Uzonwanne. Security Challenges and Implications to National Stability. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-1700 Paper ISSN 2222-2855 Online Vol.6 No.4 2015  Onifade Comfort Imhonopi David Urim Ugochukwu Moses. Addressing the Insecurity Challenge in Nigeria: The Imperative of Moral Values and Virtue Ethics. Global Journal of HUMAN SOCIAL SCIENCE Political Science Volume 13 Issue 2 Version 1.0 Year 2013

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