Getting to Grips with Genesis 10th January 2016

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Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by meteoroids, asteroids and planetoids. Panspermia proposes that life that can survive the effects of space, such as extremophile bacteria, become trapped in debris that is ejected into space after collisions between planets that harbor life and Small Solar System Bodies (SSSB). Bacteria may travel dormant for an extended amount of time before colliding randomly with other planets or intermingling with protoplanetary disks. If met with ideal conditions on a new planets’ surfaces, the bacteria become active and the process of evolution begins. Recent probes inside comets show it is overwhelmingly likely that life began in space, according to a new paper by  Cardiff University scientists . TOP 10 THEORIES ON BEGINNING OF LIFE ON EARTH Courtesy of smashinglists.com 10. PANSPERMIA

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9. BIOPOESIS In natural science, abiogenesis or biopoesis is the study of how biological life arises from inorganic matter through natural processes, and the method by which life on Earth arose. Most amino acids, often called “the building blocks of life”, can form via natural chemical reactions unrelated to life, as demonstrated in the  Miller–Urey experiment  and similar experiments that involved simulating some of the conditions of the early Earth in a laboratory. In all living things, these amino acids are organized into proteins, and the construction of these proteins is mediated by nucleic acids, that are themselves synthesized through biochemical pathways catalysed by proteins. Which of these organic molecules first arose and how they formed the first life is the focus of abiogenesis.

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8. COSMOGENY Cosmogeny, is any theory concerning the coming into existence or origin of the universe, or about how reality came to be. In the specialized context of space science and astronomy, the term refers to theories of creation of (and study of) the Solar System. Attempts to create a naturalistic cosmogony are subject to two separate limitations. One is based in the philosophy of science and the epistemological constraints of science itself, especially with regards to whether scientific inquiry can ask questions of “why” the universe exists. Another more pragmatic problem is that there is no physical model that can explain the earliest moments of the universe’s existence  because of a lack of a testable theory of quantum gravity, although string theorists and researchers in  loop quantum cosmology  believe they have the formulas to describe it within their field equations.

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7. ENDOSYMBIOSIS The  endosymbiotic  theory was first articulated by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski in 1905. According to this theory, certain organelles originated as free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as endosymbionts. Mitochondria developed from proteobacteria (in particular, Rickettsiales or close relatives) and chloroplasts from cyanobacteria. It suggests that multiple forms of bacteria entered into symbiotic relationship to form the eukaryotic cell. The horizontal transfer of genetic material between bacteria promotes such symbiotic relationships, and thus many separate organisms may have contributed to building what has been recognised as the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) of modern organisms.

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6. SPONTANEOUS GENERATION

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Until the early 19th century, people generally believed in the ongoing spontaneous generation of certain forms of life from non-living matter. This was paired with the belief in heterogenesis, e.g. that one form of life derived from a different form ( e.g.  bees from flowers). Classical notions of spontaneous generation, held that certain complex, living organisms are generated by decaying organic substances. According to Aristotle it was a readily observable truth that aphids arise from the dew which falls on plants, flies from putrid matter, mice from dirty hay, crocodiles from rotting logs at the bottom of bodies of water, and so on. Spontaneous generation or Equivocal generation is considered obsolete by many, regarding the origin of life from inanimate matter, which held that this process was a commonplace and everyday occurrence, as distinguished from univocal generation, or reproduction from parent(s). The theory was synthesized by Aristotle, who compiled and expanded the work of prior natural philosophers and the various ancient explanations of the appearance of organisms; it held sway for two millennia. It is generally accepted to have been ultimately disproven in the 19th Century by the experiments of Louis Pasteur. The disproof of ongoing spontaneous generation is no longer controversial, now that the life cycles of various life forms have been well documented. However, the question of biopoesis or abiogenesis, how living things originally arose from non-living material, remains relevant today 6. SPONTANEOUS GENERATION

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5. CLAY THEORY A model for the origin of life based on clay was forwarded by A. Graham Cairns-Smith of the University of Glasgow in 1985 and explored as a plausible illustration by several other scientists, including Richard Dawkins. Clay theory postulates that complex organic molecules arose gradually on a pre-existing, non-organic replication platform—silicate crystals in solution. Complexity in companion molecules developed as a function of selection pressures on types of clay crystal is then exapted to serve the replication of organic molecules independently of their silicate “launch stage”.

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4. THEORY OF CONSECUTIVE CREATIONS The idea of extinction paved the way for the theory of catastrophism or “consecutive creations”, one of the predecessors of the evolution theory. Catastrophism is the idea that Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. This view holds that the present is the key to the past, and that all things continue as they were from the beginning of the world. According to this theory, since each catastrophe completely destroyed the existing life, each new creation consisted of life form different from that of previous ones. French scientists Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and Orbigney (1802 to 1837) were the main supporters of this theory.

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3. MATERIALISTIC THEORY According this theory, the origin of life on earth is the result of a slow and gradual process of chemical evolution that probably occurred about 3.8 billion years ago. Chemical evolution refers to molecular evolution is the process of evolution at the scale of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Molecular evolution emerged as a scientific field in the 1960s as researchers from molecular biology, evolutionary biology and population genetics sought to understand recent discoveries on the structure and function of nucleic acids and protein. Some of the key topics that spurred development of the field have been the evolution of enzyme function, the use of nucleic acid divergence as a “molecular clock” to study species divergence, and the origin of noncoding DNA.

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2. ORGANIC EVOLUTION Speciation stretches back over 3.5 billion years during which life has existed on earth. It is thought to occur in multiple ways such as slowly, steadily and gradually over time or rapidly from one long static state to another. Evolution (also known as biological or organic evolution) is the change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of organisms. Inherited traits are particular distinguishing characteristics, including anatomical, biochemical or behavioural characteristics, that are passed on from one generation to the next. Evolution has led to the diversification of all living organisms, which are described by Charles Darwin as “endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful”.

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1. THEORY OF SPECIAL CREATION

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According to this theory, all the different forms of life that occur today on planet earth, have been created by God, the Almighty. Adam and Eve were, according to the Book of Genesis, Bible and Quran the first man and woman created by the God. Life on earth began from them according to Christians, Muslims and Jews. The 3 religions have a common agreement on the fact God created the universe in seven days, reserving for his sixth-day labour the climax of creation: man and woman. On the seventh day God rests and so establishes the holiness of the Sabbath. God fashioned a man fom the dust and blows the breath of life into his nostrils, then planted a garden (the Garden of Eden) and caused to grow in the middle of the garden the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and the Tree of Life. God set the man in the garden “to work it and watch over it,” permitting him to eat from all the trees in the garden except the Tree of Knowledge, “for on the day you eat of it you shall surely die.” God brought the animals to the man for him to name. None of them were found to be a suitable companion for the man, so God caused the man to sleep and created a woman from a part of his body (Tradition describes the part as a rib). 1. THEORY OF SPECIAL CREATION

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Genesis 1New International Version - UK (NIVUK) The beginning 1  In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.  2  Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. 3  And God said, ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light.  4  God saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness.  5  God called the light ‘day’, and the darkness he called ‘night’. And there was evening, and there was morning – the first day. 6  And God said, ‘Let there be a vault between the waters to separate water from water.’  7  So God made the vault and separated the water under the vault from the water above it. And it was so.  8  God called the vault ‘sky’. And there was evening, and there was morning – the second day. 9  And God said, ‘Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.’ And it was so.  10  God called the dry ground ‘land’, and the gathered waters he called ‘seas’. And God saw that it was good. 11  Then God said, ‘Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.’ And it was so.  12  The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.  13  And there was evening, and there was morning – the third day.

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14  And God said, ‘Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years,  15  and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.’ And it was so.  16  God made two great lights – the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars.  17  God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, 18  to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good.  19  And there was evening, and there was morning – the fourth day. 20  And God said, ‘Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the vault of the sky.’  21  So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living thing with which the water teems and that moves about in it, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.  22  God blessed them and said, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.’  23  And there was evening, and there was morning – the fifth day. 24  And God said, ‘Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind.’ And it was so.  25  God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.

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26 Then God said, ‘Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.’ 27 So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. 28 God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.’ 29 Then God said, ‘I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. 30 And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds in the sky and all the creatures that move along the ground – everything that has the breath of life in it – I give every green plant for food.’ And it was so. 31 God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning – the sixth day. 2.1 Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array. 2 By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from the work of creating that he had done.

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WHY WERE WE CREATED? We were created to know Him and be known by Him We were created in His image to make Him known God created male and female – each with a specific role * At the heart of mature masculinity is a sense of benevolent responsibility to lead, provide for and protect women in ways appropriate to a man’s differing relationships J. Piper * At the heart of mature femininity is a freeing disposition to affirm, receive and nurture strength and leadership from worthy men in ways appropriate to a woman’s differing relationships. J. Piper 4. We were created to reproduce godly offspring – be fruitful and increase in number 5. We were given the task of caring for God‘s creation

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IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED…… …God saw all that he had made, and it was very good.

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