"Ciao / Hallo" from our city: Torino

Category: Education

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BRIEF HISTORY OF TURIN In the first century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans created a military camp (Castra Taurinorum), later dedicated to Augustus (Augusta Taurinorum). The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high walls. After the fall of the Roman Empire the city was conquered by the Lombards, then the Franks of Charlemagne (773); in the 940s the Contea di Torino was founded, until 1050 held by the Arudinic dynasty and then, after the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, by the family of the Counts of Savoy. In 1230-1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the thirteenth century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the fifteenth century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period. The ROMAN REMAINS VALENTINO CASTLE

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Emanuele Filiberto made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale, today named Piazza San Carlo and Via Nuova, today called Via Roma were added with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the XVII century; in the same period the Royal Palace (Palazzo Reale) was built. In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. After the subsequent Treaty of Utrecht, the Kingdom of Sardinia was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte annexed, with a decree, Piedmont and Torino to France. Finished the Napoleonic period, the Congress of Vienna gave back the city to the Savoy, and from that moment on, Turin started a growing importance as centre of national interests to the later unification of the Italian state. The Risorgimento saw as its main Piedmont characters the politician and count Camillo Benso di Cavour (1810 - 1861) and the future first king of Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II (1820 - 1878). The ROYAL PALACE SAN CARLO Square

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The king Vittorio Emanuele II, with the support of the French ally, freed Milan from the Austrian oppressor. The path towards the Italian unification was already settled, and on 26 February 1861, the Chamber of Deputies, with its seat in Palazzo Carignano, proclaimed the birth of the reign of Italy. Turin was the capital of Italy from 1861 to 1865, when this one was moved to Florence and then to Rome on 8th July 1871. In 1871, the Fréjus Tunnel was opened, making Turin an important communication node. The city now had 250,000 inhabitants. The Museo Egizio, the Mole Antonelliana, the Gran Madre church and Vittorio Veneto square were built in this period. Turin reacted to the loss of importance by beginning a rapid industrialisation: in 1899 Fiat was founded and Lancia in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often considered the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the Exposition again in 1911. CARIGNANO Square

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After World War I, conflicts between workers and industrialists began. The first strikes took place and in 1920 the Lingotto factory was occupied. After World War II, Turin was rapidly rebuilt and its industries greatly developed, which caused waves of immigration, largely from the southern regions of Italy. The population reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F.C. and Torino F.C., the headquarters of automobile manufacturers Fiat, Lancia and Alfa Romeo, and host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. The RIVER PO

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