Slide 1: Electric cars By: Antonio, Matteo, Andrea - 4CM - Itis Pininfarina Slide 2: Electric Cars use the energy stored in a battery (or series of batteries) for vehicle propulsion. Electric motors provide a clean and safe alternative to the internal combustion engine. The electric vehicle is known to have faster acceleration but shorter distance range than conventional engines. They produce no exhaust but require long charging times. BATTERIES FOR VEHICLE PROPULSION Slide 3: Electric motors have several advantages over internal combustion engines (ICEs):
Energy efficient. Electric motors convert 75% of the chemical energy from the batteries to power the wheels—internal combustion engines (ICEs) only convert 20% of the energy stored in gasoline.
Environmentally friendly. EVs emit no pollutants, although the power plant producing the electricity may emit them. Electricity from hydro-, solar-, or wind-powered plants causes no air pollutants.
Performance benefits. Electric motors provide quiet, smooth operation and stronger acceleration and require less maintenance than ICEs.
Reduce energy dependence. Electricity is a domestic energy source. EVs face significant battery-related challenges:
Driving range. Most EVs can only go about 150–300 kms before recharging—gasoline vehicles can go over 500 kms before refuelling.
Recharge time. Fully recharging the battery pack can take 4 to 8 hours. Even a "quick charge" to 80% capacity can take 30 min.
Battery cost: The large battery packs are expensive and may need to be replaced one or more times.
Bulk & weight: Battery packs are heavy and take up considerable vehicle space. Slide 4: Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)
Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors and can be configured to obtain different objectives, such as improved fuel economy, increased power, or additional auxiliary power for electronic devices and power tools. Regenerative Braking
The electric motor applies resistance to the drivetrain causing the wheels to slow down. In return, the energy from the wheels turns the motor, which functions as a generator, converting energy normally wasted during coasting and braking into electricity, which is stored in a battery until needed by the electric motor. Slide 5: Electric Motor Drive/Assist
The electric motor provides additional power to assist the engine in accelerating, passing, or hill climbing. This allows a smaller, more efficient engine to be used. Automatic Start/Shutoff
Automatically shuts off the engine when the vehicle comes to a stop and restarts it when the accelerator is pressed. This prevents wasted energy from idling.