2014_ppt_summer_school_2014

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INTEGRATING SCIENCE AND ENGLISH IN PRIMARY EDUCATION . A CASE STUDY ON CO-TEACHERS DISCOURSES IN A CLIL CLASSROOM PhD student: Laura Valdés-Sánchez Supervisor : Mariona Espinet Institution: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)

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CLIL About CLIL What’s CLIL? And why CLIL? Why Science in English? Needs and challenges on Science Education CLIL in Catalonia Linguistic context in Catalonia CLIL in Catalonia & the UAB initiatives Case study general AIM Context of the study About the school About the CLIL project About coteaching Findings of the preliminary study Research objectives Research design and method Data Data Analysis Macroanalysis Microanalysis Analytical tool Final questions : future, doubts and challenges CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions What are we going to talk about ?

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CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions CLIL What’s CLIL? CLIL = Content and Language Integrated Learning “the acronym CLIL is used as a generic term to describe all types of provision in which a second language (a foreign, regional or minority language and/or another official state language) is used to teach certain subjects in the curriculum other than languages lessons themselves ” ( Eurydice , 2006) Why CLIL?

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CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions CLIL Why Science Teaching in English? Often science is the subject chosen to implement CLIL projects English it is the lingua franca of the European Union and the business world and the dominant language in science Science teaching in English It has been widely studied for the international educational research Produces benefits in both English teaching and Science Education ( Sanmartí , 2002; Edwards & Mercer, 1988; Mercer, 1997; Mortimer & Scott, 2003; Lemke, 1990). Benefits for Science Teaching ( Moate , 2011 ) Enhances the development of scientific skills

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CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions CLIL Why Science Teaching in English? From the point of view of research in science education is an interesting research context because: Helps to rethink the role of language in learning science It leads to interdisciplinary collaboration mechanisms It is an existing reality and we must preserve the quality in the science teaching

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CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions CLIL Needs and challenges on CLIL Science Education CLIL obtain a real integration of the teaching of both disciplines ( Dalton-Puffer, 2007; Cluster, 2007 ) trained professionals capable of producing a Science teaching and an English teaching that is integrated and that preserves the quality in the teaching of both disciplines ( Horrillo Godino , 2011; Sandberg, 2011), need to promote the dialogue among disciplines

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CLIL Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions Linguistic context in Catalonia CLIL in Catalonia Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain. Catalan is a vital part of our history and cultural identity. Catalan Spanish English (French) more than 200 languages 2 Official languages Foreign languages in school Spoken languages (immigration) 1939, after the Civil War Catalan prohibited Schooling only in Spanish Some schools teach in catalan as an act of tenacity and cultural survival 80’s, restoring democracy Today we face this challenges Catalan co-official with Spanish Heavy migration from other spanish communities Inclusive catalan school: catalan as language of instruction Integrate immigrants from the entire world Consolidate Catalan immersion Provide access to both official languages and add an international dimension Preserve immigrants’ mastery of their native tongues, considered part of the richness they bring to Catalan society .

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CLIL Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions CLIL in Catalonia CLIL in Catalonia In 2012, 441 schools on Catalonia declared themselves to be running a CLIL project Research on Catalan immersion experience shows that immersion don’t cause difficulties in achieving good marks in subjects like Science or other content areas (Lorenzo, 2014) The official plurilingual policy in Catalonia promote the learning of 3 or more languages and supports CLIL projects The Spanish central government is at present legislating against the use of Catalan in schools. Any attempt to introduce new languages in the education system might be considered a potential danger for Catalan and might add extra tension in the Catalan education system. We need to conduct more research on how the CLIL programs are being implemented in the classroom We dealt with the social demand for trained professionals to perform these integration programs

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CLIL Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions UAB initiatives CLIL in Catalonia Faculty of Education

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions Case study Case study of a Science and English integrated teaching project based on coteaching conducted in a public Primary school in Catalonia . Case study method “can be defined as an intensive, holistic description and analysis” (Merriam, 1988) of a single phenomenon that may lead to generalizations, both by the researchers and by the readers (Stake, 1998 ) Case study AIM Methodological approach based on the discourse studies from a sociocultural perspective ( Edwards & Mercer, 1988; Lemke, 1990; Mercer 1997; Mortimer & Scott, 2003; Kelly, 2007 )

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions Case study general aims Aims Illuminate some aspects of the interaction produced in the CLIL classroom through the discourse analysis of three pairs of co-teachers who carry out a common activity . R eflect on (a) how the integration of Science and English occurs in the classroom (b) how the discursive identities evolve

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions About the school Pre-school (3-6 years of age) Primary School (6-12 years of age ) diversity of origin and socioeconomic status Public school Catalan is its vehicular language Created in 2007 growing neighborhood Centers of activity: Plurilingualism Inclusiveness Environmental education and promotion of health Ciutat d’Alba School Sant Cugat del Vallès, near Barcelona Context of the study

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Coteaching Context of the study Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions About the CLIL project In Primary Education This CLIL project aims to integrate Science education and English teaching using the coteaching as a tool for instruction. Activities are always based on Inquiry Science and experimentation in English

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Preliminary Study Coteaching Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions About coteaching Process in which two or more teachers plan, instruct and evaluate together (Davis Willey & Crespo , 1998) It involves collaborative work based on dialogue between disciplines that occurs inside and outside the classroom enriching learning environments with the baggage of two experts The co-teaching is drawn as a strategy with great potential to help building discipline integration projects. Benefits of this practice for both students and teachers documented by several researchers. Roth and Tobin (2007) advocate this model as a tool for professional development of teachers . They argue that teachers who work together in the classroom expand their identities through a cooperation based on established goals and interests.

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Research objectives Preliminary Study Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions Findings of the preliminary study Preliminary study conducted by the same researchers during a post-grade in research education. We analyzed recordings of the interlevel workshops described. We focused the analysis on the teachers questions FINDINGS coteaching brings a reciprocal learning among teachers a change in the structure of the workshop a shared responsibility in the classroom a transfer among teachers on the ability to formulate scientific questions

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Researh design Research objectives Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions Research objectives Our case study aims to analyze how the integration of Science and English occurs in the Primary classroom through the discourse of the coteachers . How is the EVOLUTION of the interaction on a CLIL project based on co-teaching on Primary school studied for 4 years? How does the PROFESIONAL DEVELOPMENT of the teachers involved in this project take place? How does the Science-English INTEGRATION take place in a Primary classroom where two teachers work in a collaborative way ? How does a CLIL cotaught ACTIVITY for Science and English teaching works? How is the INTERACTION that occurs between two co-teachers and a Primary CLIL class? CROSS-SETIONAL STUDY: 3 pairs of co-teachers performing the same activity during 2012-2013 LONGITUDINAL STUDY: discourse evolution of 1 pair monitored over 3 years (2010-2013) RESEARCH QUESTIONS

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions Research design and method Case study methodological approach based on discourse studies from a sociocultural perspective (Edwards & Mercer, 1988; Lemke, 1990; Mercer 1997; Mortimer & Scott, 2003, Kelly, 2007). Researh design Video/Field notes 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 LONGITUDINAL STUDY CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY Qualitative analyisis of the teachers discourses in the classroom for answer the research questions Probable aditional data: Interviews with the coteachers

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3 kinds os data: Video: Field notes toke on the classroom sessions and teachers meetings Planing to do some interviews to all the coteachers CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions Data Data School Year Coteachers Activity Duration 2010-2011 1 ET* + 1 ST* Interlevel hands-on activity about air 3h 16’ 59’’ (Complete activity = 3 sessions) 2011-2012 1 ET + 1 ST Interlevel hands-on activity about plant growing 2:40:34 (Complete activity = 5 sessions) 2012-2013 1 ET + 3 ST = 3 pairs of coteachers Hands-on activity about “Making an adobe” 9:43:37 (3 Complete activities = 14 sessions ) * ET = English teacher; ST = Science teacher

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Analytical tool Final questions Data Analysis : phases Data Analysis MICROANALYSIS MACROANALYSIS Video recording Oganizing Data base Videoclips selection Transcription Of 22 sessions: 2 workshops (3 and 5 sessions) and 3 complete activities (4/5 sessions/activity) We select the moments in which the two teachers interact with the whole class and transcript them. Segmentation into episodes Episodes coding Inter-pretation We do a segmentation based on the thematic pattern We use a inductive-deductive analytical tool We will write a case study enriched by the coteachers’ interviews and the field notes Atlas- ti (qualitative analysis software) allows us coding all the episodes and questioning Qualitative analysis and description of selected episodes

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Analytical tool Final questions Macroanalysis: Data base Data Analysis Videoclips School Year Co-teachers Activity Duration Other data Videocip decription Allows us to quickly find a specific clip

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Analytical tool Final questions Macroanalysis : clip selection Types of interaction among coteachers and students (IDC) 2G 2 coteachers share interaction with the whole class 2P 2 coteachers in the classroom, each one interact with different students (working in groups) 2D 2 coteachers manage a classroom or space shuttle 1G 1 teacher interacts with the whole class 1P 1 teacher interacts with diferent working groups . 1D 1 teacher manages a classroom or space shuttle Sessió Clip Minuts IDC Descripció Mercè-Lucia 1 (recollim materials) M_1tovot_2_130417_1de3 0:00:00 - 0:11:14/fi (Fragment M1A) 2G A la classe planifiquen recollida de materials, recapitulació tovot M_1tovot_2_130417_2de3 0:00:00 – 0:02:06 2D Desplaçament 0:02:06 – 0:06:22 (Fragment M1B) 2G Indicacions per a la recollida de materials al lloc de recollida 0:06:22 – 0:22:50/fi 2P Recollida de materials i tornada a l’escola M_1tovot_2_130417_3de3 0:00:00 – 0:01:42 (Fragment M1C) 2G Organització en dos grups per tornar a classe i guardar els materials a l’aula de Science 0:01:42 – 0:04:08 1D Desplaçament (reaccions alumnes amb la càmera) 0:04:08 – 0:05:30 1G Recuperació control classe (reaccions càmera) 0:05:30 – 0:16:13 1G Recapitulació tovot: què és i com es construeix (materials, tools & actions ) Data Analysis Clips selected New data base fragments data in new clips based on the interactional pattern

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Analytical tool Final questions Microanalysis : from video to episodes Data Analysis Video 2G clips Trans-cription Unit of analysis : EPISODES INTERACTIONAL PATTERN SEMANTIC PATTERN EPISODE NAME ( info about who , what session , what 2Gclip, what episode ) short or long transcriptions where we can read how two coteachers interact with the whole classroom

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions Analytical tool Inductive-deductive analytical tool Characterize the teacher’s interventions into 4 levels WHAT? HOW? WHO? WHICH? Three classification systems: purposes related to Science teaching purposes related to English teaching purposes related to the socialization of the group Which is the laguage used ? Who is talking ? How is the conversation estructured ? What is she/he talking about or trying to achieve?

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Who is talking? Which laguage they use? Every level of analysis has different codes. We assigned minimum 1 code of every level to each teacher intervention CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Final questions Analytical tool Analytical tool Codes English Catalan Spanish Catalan with words in English English with words in Catalan English with words in Spanish Linguistic pattern Participation pattern Codification system Codes Who does the intervention? Ma (English teacher) Mc1 (Science teacher 1) Mc2 (Science teacher 2) Mc3 (Science teacher 3) Mv (Visiting teacher) Inv (Researcher) MI (Teacher from another classroom) Who is responding to? Ma (English teacher) Mc1 (Science teacher 1) Mc2 (Science teacher 2) Mc3 (Science teacher 3) Al (Student) Als (Some students) Mv (Visiting teacher) Inv (Researcher) MI (Teacher from another classroom)

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How is the conversation estructured? Analytical tool CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Final questions Analytical tool 1st order codes 2on order codes 3rd order codes     New input Initiation Starting the conversation Change of course Continuity Topic retrieval  Question  Open, Close Yes/No, Close word, Establishment of consensus, Checking understanding  Answer Short answer, Long answer   Metalinguistic input  Code relation (translation), Speaking, Writing     Repetition    Literal  Literal repetition, Literal and interrogative repetition, Translation  Not literal  Repetition with code-switching, Interrogative repetition with code-switching Auto-repetition (Auto-facilitation) Word repetition, Idea repetition     Re-formulation     Intracodic reformulation   Reformulation changing the language but not the code, Reformulation making a change in perspective without changing the code    Intracodic reformulation  Reformulation from _ Catalan to English, Reformulation from Spanish to English, Reformulation from English to Catalan, Reformulation from English to Spanish, Reformulation changing the and the perspective  Auto-reformulation (Auto-f acilitation) Reformulation of what one said changing the language, Redefine what one said changing perspective   Feedback Direct feedback    Correction, Correction + Repetition, Correction + Repetition + Explanation, Initiation and demand to follow, Involvement of partners Indirect feedback  Simulation: not having understood, Resume entire phrase correcting Demand confirmation  Invitation to talk  Direct invitation Say the name - Setting - Ask someone specific explanation - Greeting someone specific  Indirect invitation  Complete sentences - Say hello to the group - Ask a volunteer to explain Estructural pattern We want to understand how the coteachers build the conversation with the students and how they collaborate in the interaction.

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What is she/he talking about or trying to achieve? CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Final questions Anaytical tool Analytical tool Semantic pattern In the analysis of the semantic pattern we characterized teacher’s intervention in terms of its objectives in 3 classification systems : purposes related to Science teaching purposes related to English teaching purposes related to the socialization of the group. SCIENTIFIC COMPETENCE PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE SOCIAL COMPETENCE We have constructed this category using: Our data (inductive codes) The following literature (deductive codes): Science and English teaching, official curricular documents from European, Spanish and Catalan governmental institutions research literature in Science and Foreign language education

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Final questions Anaytical tool Analytical tool (a) Purpose related to the teaching of "Knowledge of the natural and social": facilitate the development of the   2on order codes 3rd order codes 4th order codes       Scientific areas     Context Identifying scientific contexts Knowledge of scientific concepts and theories   Definition - Description - Identification - Location - Interactions - Consequence – Causal relation - Generalization - Links with everyday life   Inquiring capacity   Asking questions - Based observations - Getting Information - Information analysis – Representation - Presentation of hypothesis - Testing hypotheses – Alternatives solutions - Predictions - Inferences-Data collection - Data Analysis - Using evidence - Getting conclusions - Assessment findings - Findings communication - Answers to research questions   Knowledge about Science Metareflection on the source of knowledge - Utility - Origin - Purpose - Limits - Nature - Fortress - First impressions - As opposed to other forms of knowledge   Technologic areas   Technological Knowledge and skills Identification of elements - Interactions - Planning construction - Construction Completion - Properties of Materials - Establishment of aims   Socio-Historic areas   Historical and social knowledge Changes in technological objects - Changes in ecosystems - Chronologically place - Succssions - Understanding other historical moments - Identifying changes produced by human beings   Attitudinal area   Attitudes     Taking care of the individual and community health - Behave solidarity - Behave respectfully - Make good use of resources - Caring for the environment - Heritage Care - Take socially responsible decisions - Show curiosity - Behave ethically - Maintain order and cleanliness of the class - Assess the role of science and technology in meeting needs - Identify careers related to science SCIENTIFIC COMPETENCE

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Final questions Anaytical tool Analytical tool (b) Purpose related to the teaching of a foreign language : facilitate the development of the PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE 2on order codes 3rd order codes 4th order codes    Linguistic area (Linguistic competences) Lexical competence   Catalan translation - Use in Catalan – Use in English and Catalan – Visual support - Demand of words Repeating words - Make repeated - Context  Grammatical competence Filling gaps - Construction of sentences – Translation of sentences – Relation of sentences - Replacement of speech - Question / answer structured Semantic competence Visual support – Negative definition – Ostensive definition ostensive (= examples) – Interlexical relationship: antonymy Phonological competence Exposure to repetition - Repetition - Complete Orthographic competence Writing - Spelling - Complete the words - Exposure to the written word Orthoepic competence  Reading - Relationship letter / sound  Sociolinguistic area (Sociolinguistic competences) Socials relations Greetings - Treatments - Turntaking - Interjections Politeness conventions Positive politeness- Negative politeness - Thanks - Impoliteness Register differences (leaving aside the neutral register)   Formal - informal - Family Registry – Solemn registry   Folk wisdom Proverbs – Expressions - Slogans Dialect and accent Using other accents - Observations on accent  Pragmatic area (Pragmatic competences) Discourse competence Perspective  - Information repeated - Natural Sequence - Cause / Effect - Structuring Discourse Functional competence: Microfunctions Requested information - Information Expression - Expression of attitudes - Discovery of attitudes - Persuasion - Social life - Structure speech - Correction Functional competence: Macrofunctions Description – Narration – Commentary – Exposition – Explanation – Demonstration – Instruction – Argumentation - Persuasion

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Final questions Anaytical tool Analytical tool (c) purposes related to the socialization of the group facilitate the development of the   SOCIAL COMPETENCE 2on order codes 3rd order codes 4th order codes   Management of the group   Activity organization   Recognize actors – Time management - Groups Agrupaments   Behavioral norms   Code used– Parallel discussions – Body position Group work Norms of group behavior Collaborative work - Respect   Affective work   Affective aspect Motivation - Emotions Under construction…

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CLIL CLIL in Catalonia Case study AIM Context of the study Coteaching Preliminary Study Research objectives Researh design Data Data Analysis Analytical tool Final questions Apply and refine the analytical tool Clarify research questions Consider new data Future , doubts and challenges… We need to … Phases of observation, investigation and interpretation "overlap and interplay in a functional way passing from one to another . The transition from one to another during the course of the investigation occurs as problem areas are progressively clarified and redefined. ". ( Parlett and Hamilton, 1976) PROGRESSIVE APPROACH Find ways to include the vision of the coteachers: Semi-structured interviews or focus group? Tension between know what I want to ask and don’t let pass a long time We want to find a way to return the results of research to the school in a useful way and resume meetings with coteachers

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Thanks for your attention Gràcies per la vostra atenció Gracias por vuestra atención lauravaldessanchez@gmail.com

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