Women's Rights Presentation

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Women's Rights - "Trapped by Inequality" WOMEN’S EDUCATION RIGHTS

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Education for women The demand for women suffrage emerged in the first half of the 19th century from within other reform movements.

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Mary Wollstonecraft, Frances Wright, and Margaret Fuller believed that giving women an equal education to that of men would do more to improve women’s position in society than voting rights.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 26 states: Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

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If Education is a human right why are women denied the right to Education? In the world 130 million children do not have a primary education of that 130 million two thirds of them are females.

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Illiteracy Around the world 860 million people are illiterate of those 860 million 573 million are women. Fertility With each year of education, female fertility drops 5% to 10 %

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What is significant about the educational experiences of girls in the early common school experience? Why were women’s changing roles within education significant to the development of public education? What do you think?

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Women in the 21st Century are thought to have: Freedom from Fear Freedom to Vote Freedom of Speech Freedom from Torture Freedom of Choice Freedom of Religion Freedom from enslavement

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What is significant about the educational experiences of girls in the early common school experience? Why were women’s changing roles within education significant to the development of public education? What do you think?

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A Patriarchal Society and the Public and Private Spheres In the late eighteenth century, a woman’s position would have been determined by birth. Their “primary duty was to bear children” Education dictated by the demands of being a wife and mother. Subordinate role to her husband’s authority.

Women and Contemporary Education: 

Women and Contemporary Education Modern women’s rights movement began in the 1960s as an outgrowth of the larger civil rights movement. Important federal civil rights legislation affecting women was the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race or sex. 1972, Title IX, an amendment to the 1964 Civil Rights Act was passed by Congress, but did not go into affect until July 21, 1975. Title IX states explicitly: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” Applies to all public school districts in the United States and almost all institutions at the college level. For the first time women were to have equal access to sports programs and facilities.

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Unfortunately... Many women are still stripped of their BASIC rights Yes, in the 21st Century

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It is important to note: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - All humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights - Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. - Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. - Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. - Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. - Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. - Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free; at least in the elementary and fundamental stages Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. - Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. Basically, Violence and discrimination against women break every single rule in this Declaration

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- Abuse violence and discrimination against women are widely tolerated and systematic. - The issues with women’s rights are still being ignored and remain as a ‘social epidemic’. - Many governments turn a blind eye towards the increasing problems with the discrimination and violence against women Problems in the modern world - Abused victims of rape, unfair treatments in the workplace, domestic violence etc., have got no one to turn to

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Here are the facts: - Women are attacked in areas of armed conflict e.g. DR Congo and Rwanda. Many are infected with HIV/AIDS as a result - In Pakistan, men are beating women at alarming rates – yet government officials refuse to interfere and punish batterers - In Thailand, Burma and Nigeria, women are constantly being sold and trafficked into prostitution where governments are not doing enough to protect the rights of women - In Ukraine and Mexico, women are often denied employment simply because they are women - In the US, students attack girls who are homosexuals, bisexuals or transgender In Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia, women are rendered as being unequal in front of the law. Women are not allowed to study at universities and can be arrested for not wearing the correct clothing in countries such as Iran.

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Closer Case Study: The situation in Afghanistan before, during and after the Taliban Before During After *Women carried out businesses transactions * Education for women and their right to vote was introduced to the constitution in 1964 *Job positions held by women: - 70% teachers - 50% civil servants - 40% doctors *Taliban took over in the 1990’s *Restricted and violated women’s right on education, work and freedom of movement *Imposed harsh penalties on women for breaking such rules. E.g.: public lashings *Restricted access to health care services *Strict dress code *Taliban was overthrown in 2001 *Over one million girls are attending school *Access to health care services *Afghan government and NGO has set up programs to improve women’s status and public participations.

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Closer Case Study: However, although the Taliban has toppled... *Girls’ drop-out rates of school is still high *Little or no progress at school *Increase of female teachers is essential, as families would not let daughters to attend school with male teachers *Freedom of movement is still a restriction *Exchange of young women to repay debts still continues *Early marriage – 57% married before age of 16. *Widespread intimidation and general security threatens women’s right to vote freely

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The United Nations - The UN and its organizations, a main one being Women Watch, has taken a special long term interest in Afghanistan to improve human rights and bring peace to the country. - Its concern increased during 1996 when the Taliban took control of Kabul - Since then, the UN has established a Human Rights Commission in Afghanistan which has created a committee to eliminate discrimination of woman and treat them as equals to men as well as establishing principles in the country reflecting the universal human rights. - It has been part of the adoption of resolution 1325, made by the Security Council, on women, peace and security on 31st October 2000. - It has also focused on the issues of education, media and culture; health; human rights and the Constitution; and refugees and internally displaced women.

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The United Nations - They were also urged to recognize the role that women should have in the future Government of Afghanistan as well as in the preparing the Loya Jirga (grand assembly). - The women arranged to have schools reopened for all children on 21 March 2002 and have resumed the positions of their old jobs The current priorities of the UN system include: - to stabilize the country and assist in the creation of a transitional government; - to create conditions that allow for the delivery of humanitarian assistance; - to develop a plan for the reconstruction and recovery of the country; - to support the return of refugees and internally displaced persons.

Quality of Life: 

Child Mortality An additional year of education reduces mortality rates of 1,000 women by 3 In Africa, the child of a woman who has not been to school has one in five chance of dying before the age a five HIV Women in Sub-Saharan Africa are more than 1.5 times likely than men to contract HIV which makes up 65% of the population with HIV/AIDS. Quality of Life

Solutions: 

Solutions Offer Free Tuition Build schools closer to villages Free transportation Implementing United Nations Millennium Development Goals .

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By: Pankul Lakhmera