economics project

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Name:-lakhender rathore.:

Name :- lakhender rathore . Roll no :- 10 Class:- 11 th com . Topic:-1) growth and changing structure of employment. 2) Imformalisation of indian work force.

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This project is based on my annual exam.

Introduction of topics.:

Introduction of topics. * Growth and changing structure of employement . =) Two development indicator. 1)Growth of employment. 2)GDP. * Informalisation of indian workforce. =)It is divided as a situation in which is not accompanied by commensurate expansion in employment opportunities.

Growth and changing structure of employment.:

Growth and changing structure of employment . Two Indicator OF Development Are GDP and Growth of employment. Fifty year of planned development have been targeted at expansion of the economy through increase in national product and employment . During the year 1960-2000 , the rate of growth of GDP has been more than that of employment , but it has fluctuated. The employment growth has been steady at the rate of 2% Per annum

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During 1990a, the growth of employment rate started decreasing and almost reached t the level which of at the stage of planning . During thus year ther has been a wide gap in growth rate of GDP and Employment. In the Indian economy without generating employment, we have been able to produce more good and services. This kind of growth is termed as jobless growth.

This two indicator will help us to study jobless growth. :

This two indicator will help us to study jobless growth . The employment of people in various sector had to be consider. Has we know that I ndia is an agrarian nation and development strategies have been aimed at reducing Dependence of people on agriculture. Distribution of workforce by industrial sector show substainable shift from work to non-farm work.

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In 1972-73 more than 75% of the population was involved in primary sector 1999-2000 this had reduced to 60%. The increase of workforce in the services and secondary sectors proves that there is a promising future for the Indian workforce. The shares of these sectors have increase from 11 to 16 per cent and 15 to 24 percent respectively. Over the last few decades people had moved from self-employment regular salaries to casual wages.

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Self employment still remains the major employment provider. The moving of workers into casual labour is called the casualization of workers. These causes the workforce to be vulnerable.

INFORMALISATION OF INDIAN WORKFORCE.:

INFORMALISATION OF INDIAN WORKFORCE . INFORMALISATION OF WORKFORCE . EMPLOYMENT IS DIVIDED INTO TWO SECTORS: A)FORMAL SECTOR B)INFORMAL SECTOR A)FORMAL SSECTOR: THE WORKERS OF THIS ARE CALLED FORMAL WORKERS THE WORKS ARE ENTITLED TO SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS. 15.6 PER CENTOF TOTAL WORKFORCE IS EMPLOYED IN THE FORMAL SECTOR.

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B)INFORMAL SECTOR IT IS AN UNORGANISED SECTOR OF AN ECONOMY WHICH INCLUDE ALL THOSE PRIVATE SECTOR ENTERPRISES WHICH EMPLOY LESS THAN 10 WORKERS. (EXAMPLE:-agriculture labourers, farmers, ownersof small enterprises, etc.) THE WORKERS OF THIS SECTORS ARE CALLED INFORMAL SECTOR. THE WORKERS ARE NOT ENTITLED TO SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS .

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4) THE WORKER CANNOT FORM FORM TRADE UNION AND ARE NOT PROTECTED BY LABOUR LAWS . 5)33.5 PER CENT OF TOTAL WORKFORCE IS EMPLOYED IN INFORMAL SECTOR . 6)OWINIG TO THE EFFORT OF INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATIN (ILO);INDIAN GOVERNMENT HAS INITIATED HE MODERNIATION OF INFORMAL.

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Economists are the opinion that the quality of employment has been deteriorating. Even after putting in many years of service, a majority of workers are deprived on gratuity, pension and provident fund. People employed in private sector earn less than those in the public sector. The section of a workforce which earn a regular income is protected by the government through labour law. The section of workers from the trade union and bargains fo better wages and social security measures like gratuity and pension.

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In order to know about this kind of people, we classify workers as workers in formal or organized and informal or unorganized sector. All the public sector enterprises and those private sectors firms with more than 10 workers are called organised sectors and the workers are called formal workers. The other are called informal workers and they include farmers, self employed individuals, people running small enterprises and those employed in such enterprises.

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The people employed in formal sectors earn more and also enjoy social security measures. It was thought by our planners that has the economic grew the number of workers in the formal sectors w ould increase but that has not been in the case. Workers in F ormal/Informal Sector, 1999-2000 Formal Sector Informal Sector MALE Female Male Female 23.2 4.8 249.8 118.2

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Out of 4 million workforce of our country less than 7 per cent is employed while the rest is working in the unorganised sector. In the formal sector more than 80% are men, while the women workforce is less than 20%. In the formal sector, there are 69% of men and 31% of women.

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India are other developing countries started paying attention to the workers in the informal sector for the late 1970s. Workers in the informal sector do not getting a steady income and have no protection from the government. The workers can be dismissed without any compensation. In the Informal sector, the technology used is outdated and there is no proper maintenance of accounts . The workers belonging to this sectors generally live in slums and squatters .

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In recent times, because of efforts taken by the International labour organization(ILO), the I ndian government has also started taking steps to modernize the informal sector and providing social security to the workers belonging to the sector.

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Thank you

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