Communication Process

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Effective Communication by Herta A Murphy

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Presentation Transcript

Process of Communication Miscommunication : 

Process of Communication Miscommunication Session # 2

Components of Communication : 

Components of Communication Context Sender – Encoder Message Medium Receiver Decoder Feedback

Components of Communication : 

Components of Communication Context Every message whether oral or written begins with context. It is a broader term which includes country culture, organization, internal and external stimuli. Context prompts you for sending / receiving messages and helps you in designing a successful message. Your education, past experience, liking, disliking, job status, age and confidence influence the way you communicate with others. For effective communication, your ability to translate the context of your receiver is as important as is yours. Receiver context includes his culture, expectations, values, opinions, mental ability, needs, skills, etc.

Components of Communication : 

Components of Communication Sender – Encoder As a sender – encoder, you use symbols that express you message and create the desired response. Message You must first decide what the main point of your message is and what other information to be included. It consists of both verbal (spoken and written) and non-verbal symbols

Components of Communication : 

Components of Communication Medium Your medium depends upon all the contextual factors (already discussed), and the nature of the message. The choice of the medium depends upon the relationship between the sender and receiver 1- Inside your organization (Memo, Reports, Meetings etc.) 2- Outside your organization (Letters, Proposals, faxes, ads, discussions, interviews etc.)

Components of Communication : 

Components of Communication Oral Immediate feedback Shorter sentences; words Conversational Focus on inter personal relations Prompt action More imperative, interrogative and exclamatory sentences Written Delayed feedback Longer sentences More formal Focus on content Where evidence of record is required Detailed documentations Possibility of review

Components of Communication : 

Components of Communication Receiver – Decoder The message receiver is your reader or listener also known as decoder, as s/he decodes your encoded message. Receiver is influenced by his context and by his mental filter. Feedback Feedback can be a desire action, an oral or written message, or simply a silence. It is the most important part of communication process.

Process of Communication : 

Process of Communication

Components of Communication : 

Components of Communication Context Have you considered the cultural and organization convention concerning the environment of your message? Have you thought about the specific reasons for and objectives of your message? Sender – encoder Recognize the internal attitudes can influence your message Realize that the words you are using reveal something about you

Components of Communication : 

Components of Communication 3. Message Is the central purpose clear ? Verbal and nonverbal elements are considered ? 4. Medium Which medium should be used? Oral for urgent; written for less urgent; Ask yourself: Are the symbols used are clear in the medium I have chosen? 5. Receiver - decoder Are you, as the sender, aware of the attitudes and perceptions of your receiver? Are there any physical, emotional, mental or cultural factors in the receiver mind that could affect your message?

Components of Communication : 

Components of Communication 5. Feedback Have you allowed for feedback to your receiver / message? Have you been precise about when you desire the feedback?

OPPORTUNITIES : 

OPPORTUNITIES pm – discussion … … prepared material … spontaneous ideas am – presenting …

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication No two people are EXACTLY alike No two countries are EXACTLY alike No two cultures are EXACTLY alike Result Problems with communication occur when the communicator filters are sharply different.

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process Physical Barriers Psychological Barriers Conventions of Meaning Perception of Reality Values, Attitudes, Opinions

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process 1. Conventions of Meaning a) Miscommunicated instructions b) Reactions towards Denotations, Connotations and Euphemisms Denotation “Dictionary meaning of a word” while Connotation “The emotional implications and associations that a word may carry.” For example home and Villa

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process 1. Conventions of Meaning b) Reactions towards Denotations, Connotations and Euphemisms Euphemism is the substitution of an inoffensive term (such as "passed away") for one considered offensively explicit ("died").

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process 2. Perception of Reality Being possessing unique filter (brain) every one of us makes various abstractions, inferences, and evaluations of the world around us. Abstracting when certain facts are selected from provided group of information and omitting the remaining information.

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process Perception of Reality 1. Abstraction a) Necessary Desirable Abstracts: People other than you may not abstract as you abstract the things because of their limited time, space, interest, etc. Abstraction occurs when a person describe events, people, equipment, projects, animals, objects etc. b) Slanted Statements: (Biased Statements) For example news reporter is taught to include quoted statements in context and to avoid expression of personal approval or disapproval of the persons, objects, or occurrences being described.

Slide 19: 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process Perception of Reality 1. Abstraction b) Slanted Statements: (Biased Statements) A reputable news reporter would not write, “ a small crowd of suckers came to hear the Governor’s plan for 2009 yesterday noon. In that rundown hotel that disfigures Hong Kong central .” Instead he may state that “between 200 and 350 people heard an address yesterday noon by Governor Patton in the auditorium at the Conrad Hotel at Pacific Place.

Slide 20: 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process Perception of Reality 1. Abstraction b) Slanted Statements: (Biased Statements) A reputable news reporter would not write, “ a small crowd of suckers came to hear the Governor’s plan for 2009 yesterday noon. In that rundown hotel that disfigures Hong Kong central .” Instead he may state that “between 200 and 350 people heard an address yesterday noon by Governor Patton in the auditorium at the Conrad Hotel at Pacific Place.

Slide 21: 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process Perception of Reality 2. Inferring Inferences are conclusion drawn from evidence. We make assumptions and draw conclusions even though we are not able to immediately verify the evidence. Some inferences are both necessary and desirable; others are risky , even dangerous.

Slide 22: 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process Perception of Reality 1. Inferring Necessary, Desirable Inferences Inferences necessary to solve problems Some of the examples of fairly reliable inferences When we land at a foreign airport, we assume we will be treated hospitably. When we send a fax, we assume that it will reach to intended receiver.

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Factors affecting communication process Perception of Reality 2. Risks of Inferences. When the assumptions made are wrong and can lead towards a failure of business, or towards wrong directions or simply results in undesired actions.

Slide 24: 

Factors affecting communication process 3- Values Attitudes and Opinions A receiver’s attitude towards a message can determine whether it is accepted, rejected, distorted, or avoided. People react favorable when the message they receive agrees with their views toward the information, the fact and the sender. Concepts & Problems of Communication

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Communication Problems Involving Values, Attitudes and Opinions Reactions towards Favorable / Unfavorable information Inadequate or Incorrect Information Closed Minds (Rigid views on certain subject) Sender’s Credibility Environmental / Business / Personal Stress

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Non Verbal Communication Sometimes nonverbal messages contradict the verbal; often they express feelings more accurately than the spoken or written language. Appearance Body Language Silence, time and space

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication Non Verbal Communication How Appearance Communicates? a) Effect on Written Messages b) Effect on Oral Messages i) Personal Appearance ii) Surrounding’s Appearance

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication How Body Language Communicates? 1- Facial Expression: conventions of eye contact are specific to each culture. Eye contact and facial expression can help or hinder your verbal message. 2- Gestures, Posture, and Movements Posture, gestures and body movement convey a message and add to or subtract from your oral message. 3- Smell and Touch 4- Voice and Sounds

Concepts & Problems of Communication : 

Concepts & Problems of Communication How Silence, Time, and Space Communicates 1- Time 2- Space

Process of Communication Miscommunication : 

Process of Communication Miscommunication Revision of Concepts Questions and Answers

BARRIERS TO UNDERSTANDING : 

BARRIERS TO UNDERSTANDING Volume Unfamiliarity Emphasis word stress sentence stress Pace (pauses) Intonation

WORD STRESS : 

WORD STRESS A commercial development occurs irregularly in this sector, perhaps once every fourteen years. A commercial development occurs irregularly in this sector, perhaps once every fourteen years.

SENTENCE STRESS : 

SENTENCE STRESS Got distinction. Buy fresh juices. I got a distinction in my exams. Buy lots of bottles of fresh juices as quickly as possible

WORD STRESS : 

WORD STRESS Occur Purpose Technique Academic Development Event Concentrate Process Occur Purpose Technique Academic Development Event Concentrate Process

CHUNKING : 

CHUNKING Anyone can become a manager. But, of course, the unprepared, the untrained, and those given too much responsibility before they’re ready will fail. ANYONE can become a successful manager. But, of course, the unprepared, The untrained, And those given too much responsibility Before they’re ready Will FAIL.

SPEAKING IN GROUPS : 

SPEAKING IN GROUPS DISCUSSION From the latin , “discutere” = ‘to agitate’ DIALOGUE From the Latin, “dia” = ‘through’, and, “logos” = ‘words’ CONVERSATION A fluid exchange to facilitate emergence of a new shared meaning Bohm, D. (Physicist and philosopher)

GROUP SKILLS Practice exercise : 

GROUP SKILLS Practice exercise 1: Preparation 2: Practice 3: Presentation 4: Review

Slide 38: 

Thank you