Immediate Inferences

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Practice examples of immediate inferences and how to determine their validity using the seven rules.

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No non-P are S ______________ No S are non-P:

No non-P are S ______________ No S are non-P Valid conversion

Some P are non-S ______________ Some P are not S:

Some P are non-S ______________ Some P are not S Valid obversion

All non-S are P ______________ All non-P are S:

All non-S are P ______________ All non-P are S Valid contraposition

F) No non-S are non-P ______________ F) Some non-S are not non-P:

F) No non-S are non-P ______________ F) Some non-S are not non-P Invalid subalternation

Some non-S are P ______________ Some non-P are S:

Some non-S are P ______________ Some non-P are S Invalid contraposition

All non-S are P ______________ F) No non-S are P:

All non-S are P ______________ F) No non-S are P Valid contrary

All X are Y ______________ F) Some X are not Y:

All X are Y ______________ F) Some X are not Y Valid contradictory

Some non-S are non-P ______________ Some non-S are not non-P:

Some non-S are non-P ______________ Some non-S are not non-P Invalid subcontrary

Some X are non-Y ______________ All X are non-Y:

Some X are non-Y ______________ All X are non-Y Invalid subalternation

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