Natural Deduction: Natural Deduction 7.1
Rules of Inference I: Rules of Inference I Modus Ponens Modus Tollens Disjunctive Syllogism Hypothetical Syllogism
Modus Ponens: Modus Ponens p É q p _________ q
Modus Tollens: Modus Tollens p É q ~q _________ ~p
Disjunctive Syllogism: Disjunctive Syllogism p v q ~p _________ q
Hypothetical Syllogism: Hypothetical Syllogism p É q q É r _________ p É r
Solving proofs in natural deduction is based on pattern recognition. Think of it as using the rules to crack a code! : Solving proofs in natural deduction is based on pattern recognition. Think of it as using the rules to crack a code!
Example One: Example One 1. F v (D É T) 2. ~F 3. D /T
Example One: Example One 1. F v (D É T) 2. ~F 3. D /T Using one of the rules find a pattern in these premises. The pattern here is DS.
Example One: Example One 1. F v (D É T) 2. ~F D /T D É T 1,2 DS So we draw the conclusion from DS on line 4.
Example One: Example One 1. F v (D É T) 2. ~F D /T D É T 1,2 DS Now use the rules to find another pattern with what we’ve just derived. This time the rule we use to “crack the code” is MP.
Example One: Example One 1. F v (D É T) 2. ~F D /T D É T 1,2 DS T 3,4 MP Once we reach the final conclusion we’ve solved the proof!
A more involved example: A more involved example ~M v (B v ~T) B É W M ~W /~T Here there are several patterns to identify. We need all of them to crack this code! Here’s one: MT Here’s another: DS
A more involved example: A more involved example ~M v (B v ~T) B É W M ~W /~T ~B 2,4 MT B v ~T 1,3 DS So we derive lines 5 and 6 using those rules. The order doesn’t matter. We could have reversed 5 & 6.
A more involved example: A more involved example ~M v (B v ~T) B É W M ~W /~T ~B 2,4 MT B v ~T 1,3 DS There’s one last code to crack to solve this proof. For this one we’ll use DS again.
A more involved example: A more involved example ~M v (B v ~T) B É W M ~W /~T ~B 2,4 MT B v ~T 1,3 DS ~T 5,6 DS There’s one last code to crack to solve this proof. For this one we’ll use DS again. Notice, to solve this proof we needed 5 & 6 in order to deduce line 7.
Slide 17: Practice some more proofs from 7.1 using the rules. Try to have fun with it! Crack the code!