Essentialism and Progressivism

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Essentialism and Progressivism : 

Essentialism and Progressivism Kylie and Ashley

Essentialism : 

Essentialism Teacher-Oriented Teacher is intellectual and moral role model Instills Students with the most essential/basic knowledge and traditional moral values Students will use this knowledge obtained to further their knowledge and think more critically

Progressivism: 

Progressivism Student-Centered Idea it to create “whole” child Uses experiences to fuel learning Hands-on education Student is problem-solver and thinker

Progressivism in the Classroom: 

Progressivism in the Classroom Study Done by Heather Leonall , Wingate University in North Carolina Asked Teachers John Dewey’s (Father of Progressivism) statements from “My Pedagogic Creed” that best reflect characteristics of Progressivism http://urpasheville.org/proceedings/ncur2011/papers/NP52928.pdf

“The teacher must know the child’s instincts and tendencies in order to plan his/her educational experiences.” : 

“The teacher must know the child’s instincts and tendencies in order to plan his/her educational experiences .” 55.3% of teachers agreed with this statement 31.6% Strongly Agreed 13.2% Disagreed No one Strongly Disagreed Many of the teacher’s stated building a relationship with their students is key in determining their lesson plans. http://urpasheville.org/proceedings/ncur2011/papers/NP52928.pdf

“School is primarily a social institution, and the teacher is engaged, not simply in the training of individuals, but in the formation of the proper social life.” : 

“School is primarily a social institution , and the teacher is engaged, not simply in the training of individuals, but in the formation of the proper social life.” 44.7% Agreed 42.1% Strongly Agreed 10.5% Disagreed 2.6% Strongly Disagreed Teachers argued that the parent’s lack responsibility for the children’s social actions therefore they feel the need to help them form a proper social life http://urpasheville.org/proceedings/ncur2011/papers/NP52928.pdf

It is the business of the school to deepen and extend [the student's] sense of the values bound up in his home life.” : 

It is the business of the school to deepen and extend [the student's] sense of the values bound up in his home life.” 42.1% Agreed 42.1% Disagreed 15.8% Strongly Agreed No One Strongly Disagreed Those who agreed with this statement argued that it is important to let students express their opinions and for the teachers to advocate them thinking critically Those against the statement say that letting the students shed their beliefs might offend other students http://urpasheville.org/proceedings/ncur2011/papers/NP52928.pdf

“Examinations are of use only so far as they test the child's fitness for social life and reveal the place in which he can be of most service and where he can receive the most help.” : 

“Examinations are of use only so far as they test the child's fitness for social life and reveal the place in which he can be of most service and where he can receive the most help.” 68.4% Disagreed 5.3% Strongly Disagreed 21.1% Agreed 5.3% Strongly Agreed Teachers against this statement believed that exams can not test the whole child and everything they learn and other measurements should be put in place Teachers for this statement exams help teachers learn where students need help http ://urpasheville.org/proceedings/ncur2011/papers/NP52928.pdf

“Education which does not occur through forms of life, forms that are worth living for their own sake, is always a poor substitute for the genuine reality and tends to cramp and to deaden.“ : 

“Education which does not occur through forms of life, forms that are worth living for their own sake, is always a poor substitute for the genuine reality and tends to cramp and to deaden .“ 55.9% Agreed No One Strongly Agreed 38.2% Disagreed 5.9% Strongly Disagreed Teachers believed that teaching should be authentic and education should be related back to the real world and real life http://urpasheville.org/proceedings/ncur2011/papers/NP52928.pdf

Essentialist-William Chandler Badgley: 

Essentialist-William Chandler Badgley Published “Essentialist’s Platform” in 1938 Believed “schools must pass on the accepted values of the society as well as the realities of scientific fact and should not concern themselves with the satisfaction of individual interests and desires .” Believes that Progressivism overemphasizes individual freedom and desires Hoped that all schools “reassert the values of discipline, authority, tradition, and scientific truth” Believed Progressivism “damaged the intellect and moral standards of students”

Essentialist-Ted Sizer: 

Essentialist-Ted Sizer 1984- Coalition of Essential Schools 600 Schools that are members, 2 countries Nearest one to us: Harmony School in Bloomington, Indiana Eliminates non-core subjects to focus on traditional subjects Principles of the School: Learning to use one's mind well Less is More, depth over coverage Goals apply to all students Personalization Student-as-worker, teacher-as-coach Demonstration of mastery A tone of decency and trust Commitment to the entire school Resources dedicated to teaching and learning Democracy and equity (this principle was added later, in the mid-nineties )

Essentialist-Diane Ravitch: 

Essentialist-Diane Ravitch Ex-Assistant Secretary of Education under Bush Administration Helped created No Child Left Behind Emphasis on essentialism: Reading, Math, and Science Sets standards and requires assessment in every school Publicly stated in her book: “NCLB is a disaster” and “she was wrong on every account”

Mix of Essentialism and Progressivism: 

Mix of Essentialism and Progressivism Cody Freels - High School Teacher who uses the Mix Essentialism: Believes in teaching basic necessary skills, “Reading and Writing the Key To Success”, Progressivism: Revolved lesson plans around students to stimulate learning, grants freewill and poses critical questions, believes in building good relationships with students http://users.manchester.edu/student/cmfreels/ProfWeb/Credo.pdf