The class of Postpartum depression (ppd)

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The Class of Postpartum Depression(PPD) : 

The Class of Postpartum Depression(PPD) Younglee KIM, RN, 1

Introduction : 

Introduction Over the centuries, normal thought is that when a pregnant woman delivers her child, it will be a special and precious moment for her, but studies show that is not always so. Unfortunately, all of women have not felt joy and feeling of pleasure normally associated with bring a new life into this world. 2

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Many of women have reported depressed mood, fatigue, and feeling of worthless or excessive. Family members easily ignore mothers’ feelings of unhappiness and sandiness during postpartum period. Medical attention has tended to ignore the seriousness of PPD, too. 3

The Seriousness of PPD : 

The Seriousness of PPD Although many researches have studied and examined aspects of PPD and circumstances, the seriousness of PPD is still low. Health care providers are often confused or unknowledgeable about postpartum depression, because of poor recognition and intervention. postpartum women and their families are not being exposed to appropriate treatment (Ugarriza, 2006). 4

The Categories of Depression : 

The Categories of Depression Dysthymia Bipolar disorder PPD Premenstrual dysphonic disorder Recurrent brief depressive disorder 5

The NIMH (1994) the Symptoms of Depression : 

The NIMH (1994) the Symptoms of Depression Sandiness, anxiety, or “empty” mood Hopelessness and pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness and helplessness Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities including sex Decreased energy, fatigue, and being “slowed down” Difficult concentrating, remembering, and making decisions Insomnia, or oversleeping Appetites and weight loss or overeating Thought of death or suicide Restlessness and irritability 6

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Hormonal change decrease the levels of progesterone and estrogen after placental delivery cause a change in the neurotransmitter levels in leading to symptoms of depression (Cohen & Nonacs, 2005) Three terms of depression during the postpartum period; postpartum blues (the baby blues), postpartum depression (PPD), and postpartum psychosis. 7

Postpartum Blues(the baby blues) : 

Postpartum Blues(the baby blues) Incidence 50% -80% Onset Days 2-5 Duration Few days Symptoms Changed mood Episodic tearfulness Irritability, Anxiety Overwhelming Lost appetite Sleeping problem 8

Postpartum Depression (PPD) : 

Postpartum Depression (PPD) Incidence 5-15% Onset the first 2 weeks-3 months Duration Up to 1 year Symptoms Depressed mood, Sleep changes Anxiety Fatigue Feeling worthless Inability to concentrate Suicide plan or attempt 9

Postpartum Psychosis : 

Postpartum Psychosis Incidence 0.1% Onset the first 2 weeks-6 weeks Duration Weeks to months Symptoms Irritability Confusion Psychotic symptoms Delusion Hallucination 10

The Symptoms of PPD : 

The Symptoms of PPD Depressed mood. Loss of interest or pleasure in activities of life. Sleep changes. Agitation or retardation in movements. Fatigue or loss of energy. Feeling worthless or excessive inappropriate guilt. Inability to concentrate or think; being indecisive every day. Thought of death, suicidal ideation without a plan or a suicide plan or attempt. Somatic symptoms, including headache, constipation, diarrhea and severe anxiety. Shame and low self-esteem. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) 11

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