Plantae Kingdom

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A PPT on Plantae Kingdom

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Kingdom Plantae: 

Kingdom Plantae

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All plants are eukaryotic autotrophs making food from sunlight through photosynthesis. There are, however, a few species that are both autotrophs and heterotrophs. Plants have cell walls made of cellulose. Primary consumers eat only plants.

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Land plants evolved from green algae Researchers have identified green algae called charophyceans as the closest relatives of land plants

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Cuticle – a protective waxy coating that prevents H 2 O in plant tissues from evaporating into the atmosphere.

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Within the cuticle are stomata that allow exchange of gases. Guard cells open and close pores in the stomata to release O 2 into the atmosphere and take in CO 2 .

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A leaf is a broad flat organ that traps light energy for photosynthesis and exchanges gases through stomata.

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Root – a plant organ that anchors the plant in soil and absorbs H 2 O and minerals from soil transporting them to the stem.

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A root cell’s job is to take water and nutrients from the soil and send them up to the part of the plant above the ground.

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The stem is the plant’s structural support for upright growth containing tissues to transport H 2 O, minerals, and nutrients from one part of the plant to another. Stems may also store food. Green stems carry on photosynthesis.

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AP Biology April 30 Plants PP continued Private Life of Plants Animal practical Coming up……………. - Plant Test May 4 Chapter 47 objectives Animal systems and structure Abstract ?

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Growing root includes 3 regions: - root tip - elongation region - maturation region Root tip and elongation region are sites of primary growth through apical meristem tissue Maturation zone, vascular tissue forms primary xylem and phloem which forms stele (the inner concentric cylinder)

Plant Vascular Tissues: 

Plant Vascular Tissues Xylem – made up of a series of dead tubular cells that transport H 2 O and dissolved minerals upward from roots to leaves. Phloem – made up of a series of living tubular cells that transport sugars from leaves to all parts of the plant.

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Two types of xylem cells: - tracheids which are are long and thin - vessel elements which are short and thick Phloem cells are made up of - sieve tube elements (carry nutrients) - companion cells (support sieve tube elements)

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When there is no water in the soil for the plant, it looses turgor pressure (wilts).

Leaf cell: 

Leaf cell

Animal Cell: 

Animal Cell

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Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and passes that energy into the stroma. Stroma contain enzymes that turn light energy into sugar and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. SUNLIGHT + 6CO 2 + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Grana are stacks light trapping chlorophyll.

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When we burn wood, basically the photosynthesis formula is reversed. We're breaking down the carbohydrate and producing carbon dioxide gas and water, plus energy, which, like sunlight, feels hot and looks bright.

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Alternation of Generations Sexual reproduction involves the two alternating processes of meiosis and fertilization . In meiosis , the chromosome number is reduced from the diploid to the haploid number. In fertilization, the nuclei of two gametes fuse, raising the chromosome number from haploid to diploid.

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In most plants meiosis and fertilization divide the life of the organism into two distinct phases or "generations". The gametophyte generation begins with a spore produced by meiosis. The spore is haploid, and all the cells derived from it (by mitosis) are also haploid. In due course, this multicellular structure produces gametes — by mitosis — and sexual reproduction then produces the diploid sporophyte generation .

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In fact, the gametophyte generation is the major stage in the life of mosses and an independent plant in ferns . However, the gametophyte is only an inconspicuous structure in angiosperms and other "higher" plants.

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The sporophyte generation produces spores (diploid) which develop into the gametophyte generation. The gametophyte generation produces gametes (haploid). In vascular plants, the sporophyte generation is dominant. In non-vascular plants, the gametophyte is larger and more conspicuous than the sporophyte.

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Plant Tropisms Phototrophism - growth toward light

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Plant Tropisms Gravitropism – downward growth of roots

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Plant Tropisms - Thigmotropism – plants response when it comes into contact with a solid object.

Vegetative Reproduction……………….: 

Vegetative Reproduction………………. ……………is asexual

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Plant Growth Meristematic tissue is made up of actively dividing cells Primary growth occurs via apical meristems in the tips of roots and stems Secondary growth is carried out by lateral meristems increasing the girth of the plant - two types of cells: vascular cambium cork cambium

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Vascular cambium produces secondary xylem and phloem secondary which replaces primary xylem and primary phloem Cork cambium produces the tissues of the outer bark Plants also have lenticels which allow for gas exchange through bark

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Bryophytes vs Tracheophytes what’s the difference?

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Division Bryophyta – mosses, liverworts, hornworts. All are non-vascular and non-seed .

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Bryophyte gametophytes Produce flagellated sperm in antheridia Produce ova in archegonia Generally form ground-hugging carpets and are at most only a few cells thick Some mosses Have conducting tissues in the center of their “stems” and may grow vertically

Division Lycophyta -Club Mosses – vascular and non-seed.: 

Division Lycophyta - Club Mosses – vascular and non-seed .

Division Pterophyta whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns vascular and non-seed. : 

Division Pterophyta whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns vascular and non-seed .

Seed Bearing Plants: 

Seed Bearing Plants

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Gymnosperms are vascular plants that produce seeds on scales of woody strobili called cones.

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In other words, they have naked seeds - seeds not enclosed in a fruit.

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The four divisions of Gymnosperms are: Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Coniferophyta

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Cycads have a terminal rosette of leaves and bear seeds in cones. All cycads have separate male and female plants.

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Division Ginkgophyta has only on living species – Ginkgo biloba . The leaves are lobed. Like Cycads, Ginkgos have separate male and female trees.

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Division Gnetophyta has 3 genera: Gnetum Ephedra Welwitschia

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Coniferophyta is the largest and most diverse division of the gymnosperms. Most are evergreen – keeping their leaves year-round. A very few are deciduous – dropping all of their leaves at the same time

Angiosperms include one division - Anthophyta: 

Angiosperms include one division - Anthophyta

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Though there is only one division of angiosperms , Anthophyta …. It is the largest and most diverse group of seed plants on Earth. Anthophytes produce flowers, then seeds enclosed in a fruit . Anthophytes can be annuals , biennials , or perennials .

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What is an annual ? What is a biennial ? What is a perennial ?

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AP Biology: May 2 Kingdom Plantae continued Kingdom Practical Presentations ? Private Life of Plants ? Coming up: Parade of Kingdoms Test corrections due 5/4 Kingdom Plantae test ? - Continue reading – chapter 47 due May 4 - 6th Abstract due May 8 – plants or systems

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Male Gametophyte

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Female Gametophyte

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What is the purpose of fruit?

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Seeds can be dispersed in a variety of ways: Wind Passing through an animals digestive system Catching on fur or skin Floating on water

Division Anthophyta has two classes of angiosperms …. Monocots and Dicots : 

Division Anthophyta has two classes of angiosperms …. Monocots and Dicots

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Possible Advantages to Alternation of Generations Amplification of the sexual product because it produces many spores. Possibly useful in an environment where limited water availability for successful fertilization limits the number of successful zygotes.

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Adaptations to Survival in the Terrestrial Environment Separation of absorbtive organs (roots) and photosynthetic organs (leaves) Waterproof cuticle Stomata Vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) Structural support tissues (cellulose and lignin) Species dispersal (spores and seeds)

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Adaptations to Survival in the Terrestrial Environment Protection of gametes in gametangia Fertilization in the absence of free water (pollen tubes instead of swimming sperm) Zygote and sporophyte embryo protected and nurtured by gametophyte

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Fungi Coniferophyta Anthophyta Bryophyta Lichen Ginkgophyta Primative seedless vascular plants Algae

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Early chordates Recent chordates Mollusca Annelida Cnidaria Arthropoda – Insecta Porifera Platyhelmenthes and Nematoda Arthropoda – Arachnida, Mesostomata, Crustacea, Myriapoda Echinodermata

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1. Why were adaptations necessary for plants to become terrestrial ? 2 What were the adaptations? 3. What is the general term for growth tissue of plants? 4. Describe the difference(s) between gymnosperms and angiosperms. 5. Describe the two patterns of growth in seed plants?

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1. Plants were no longer surrounded by water when they became terrestrial. They needed to get water, stay upright, reproduce without surrounding water. 2. Specialized root tissue, waterproof cuticle, specialized stem tissue with vascular tissue, leaf tissue, spores, seeds. 3. Meristematic tissue. 4. Gymnosperms are either Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, or Coniferophyta.

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4. Cont. They reproduce using strobilli – naked cones. Angiosperms belong to phylum Anthophyta and include all flowering plants. The flower is a specialized reproductive structure that produces seeds (zygote) covered by fruit. 5. The two patterns of growth in angiosperms are monocots and dicots.

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Division Anthophyta has two classes of angiosperms …. Monocots and Dicots

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1. Describe the two types of vascular tissue and the cells that make them?