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Motivation By: Dr. Navin Kumar

Definition of Motivation:

Definition of Motivation Motivation - the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior Needs Drives Incentives

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation:

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsically Motivated work behavior Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishments. Intrinsically Motivated work behavior Behavior that is performed for its own sake.

Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow):

Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs Theory There is a hierarchy of five needs —physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Self-Actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. Physiological Safety & Security Love (Social) Esteem SA

ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer):

ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. ERG Theory There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.

McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Achievement:

McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Achievement Need for Achievement - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals’ issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties

McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Power:

McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Power Need for Power - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life

McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Affiliation:

McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Affiliation Need for Affiliation - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people

Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor):

Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform. Theory Y Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.

Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg):

Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors Factors —such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.

Motivation-Hygiene Theory of Motivation:

Motivation-Hygiene Theory of Motivation Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction Company policy & administration Supervision Interpersonal relations Working conditions Salary Status Security Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Salary? Motivation factors increase job satisfaction

Motivation-Hygiene Combinations:

Motivation-Hygiene Combinations (Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)

Thank you:

Thank you

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