Cement Manufacturing process and quality control1

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Cement Manufacturing process and Quality control Methods.:

2 Cement Manufacturing process and Quality control Methods.


3 Topics Cement definition Types of cement Various cements Cement plant Machinery Various process of cement manufacturing Cement raw materials and Fuel Quality Control Parameters Applications of Cement Types Quality control tips Question and Answer session

What is Cement and Why it is called Portland Cement? :

4 What is Cement and Why it is called Portland Cement?

Cement definition :

5 Cement definition Cement is a glue that holds the Rocks and Bricks.

Cement definition:

6 Cement definition Cement is a bonding agent obtained by burning a mixture of Limestone and Clay together to form Clinker, then pulverizing the clinker with gypsum.

Cement Definition :

7 Cement Definition Cement is a compound consisting of Calcium Oxide with Silica, Alumina and Iron Oxide. Also it has some minor constituents such as Mgo,So 3 , Na 2 o, K 2 o and chlorides.

What is Portland Cement?:

8 What is Portland Cement? Joseph Aspdin, an English Mason invented the cement in 1824, named it Portland cement because it produced a concrete that resembled the colour of the natural limestone quarried in Portland (England).

Are there different types of Portland Cement?:

9 Are there different types of Portland Cement? As per ASTM there are 8 types of cement and They are Type – 1 & I A* Type – II & II A* Type – III & III A* Type – IV * Type – V *

What is ASTM?:

10 What is ASTM? ASTM means American Society for testing and Materials. It is an international organization which has been in operation for over a century. The organization is specialized in developing standards for various materials.

What are the various cements?:

11 What are the various cements? A Portland Cement B Blended Cement

Portland Cement:

12 Portland Cement Ordinary Portland Cement Portland White Cement Portland Oil well Cement Portland High Alumina Cement

What is blended Cement?:

13 What is blended Cement? Blended cements are produced by intimately and uniformly intergrinding or blending Portland cement and two or more types of fine materials, Such as 1. Ground granulated blast furnace slag – It is a by product in steel Industry. 2. Fly ash – By product in Thermal Power Plants 3. Silica fume – By product in Ferrosilicon Alloys 4. Calcined clay – Burnt Clay 5. Volcanic Ash – Volcanic Eruption 6. Limestone - Naturally available

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14 Examples for Blended Cements 1. Portland Blast Furnace Slag 2. Portland Fly Ash Cement 3. Portland Masonry Cement

Main Machinery in Cement plants:

15 Main Machinery in Cement plants Crusher Stacker and Reclaimer Raw Mill (Vertical or Ball Mill) Coal Mill (Vertical or Ball Mill) Preheater / Kiln Cooler Cement Mill (Vertical or Ball Mill) Packing Machines ESP / BAG HOUSE

Types of Crushers:

16 Types of Crushers Jaw Crusher Cone Crusher Gyratory Crusher Cone or Symons Crusher Roller Crusher Hammer Crusher Impact Crusher Compound Crusher Impact Hammer Crusher

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Types of Stacker:

18 Types of Stacker Circular Stacker* Longitudinal Stacker*

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Types of Raw/Coal Mill:

20 Types of Raw/Coal Mill Ball Mills Vertical Roller Mills Advantages with the roller mills 1. Less Power Consumption comparatively B/M. 2. It does not require big space to install it. 3. More throughput. 4. Easy to Control the fineness.



Types of Preheater:

22 Types of Preheater The preheater consists of a series of cyclones and duct work. The purpose of preheter is to recover heat energy and transfer it to the kiln feed. Single Stage Raw Mix Suspension Preheater Two Stage Raw Mix Suspension Preheater Single and Two State Raw Mix Suspension Preheater with Precalcinator.

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Types of Precalcinators:

25 Types of Precalcinators ILC (Inline Calciner) SLC (Separate Line Calciner) KHD – Pyroclone FLS – Vorcalcinator IHI – Flash Furnace FCB – Hot Spot Calciner Kawasaki – KSV Precalciner Mitsubisi Fliudized Calciner

Types of Kilns:

26 Types of Kilns Vertical Shaft Kilns* Rotary Kilns* 1. Vertical Shaft Kiln Produces small amount of clinker only and it’s raw mix design is entirely different from the raw mix design of rotary kiln. 2. Coke is used as fuel in the vsk technology.

Cement Rotary Kiln:

27 Cement Rotary Kiln Kiln

Kiln Diagram:

28 Kiln Diagram Kiln

Types of Coolers:

29 Types of Coolers Rotary Coolers Satellite Cooler Planetary Coolers Grate Coolers Generally modern cement plants having grate coolers as its cooling efficiency is better than all other types of coolers and it can cool large quantity of clinker.

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Types of Packing Machines:

34 Types of Packing Machines Rotary packing machines Stationary Packing machines

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36 ESP / BAG HOUSE Electro static precipitator and bag house are pollution control equipments and controlling the dust emission from the chimney.



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Cement Manufacturing process:

39 Cement Manufacturing process Wet Process Semi Dry Process Dry Process

Wet Process:

40 Wet Process In this process the kiln feed enters the kiln in the form of a slurry with a moisture content of 30 – 40 %. Advantage with this process Uniform quality product can be produced. Dust emission can be reduced. Disadvantages with this process Fuel and power consumptions are very high.

Semi Dry Process:

41 Semi Dry Process In this process all raw materials are ground in dry state and the resultant powder is pelletized into small nodules by means of 10 – 15 % of water addition, then the nodules are fed into kiln. Advantage with this process is Fuel consumption is lower than the consumption of fuel in wet process . The disadvantage with this process is Fuel consumption is higher than the consumption of fuel in dry process.

Dry Process:

42 Dry Process In this process all raw materials are ground in dry state and the resultant powder is fed into kiln in powder form. The advantages with this process are Fuel consumption is lower than the consumption of fuel in wet and semi dry process. Throughput of kiln is higher than the throughput of wet and semi dry process kilns. Unit cost of product can be reduced.

Cement Raw Materials:

43 Cement Raw Materials To manufacture Cement five types of raw materials are required Calcareous Raw Materials Argillaceous Raw Material Siliceous Raw Materials Ferrous Raw Materials Gypsum

Calcareous Raw materials:

44 Calcareous Raw materials Calcareous raw materials contributing mainly Calcium Carbonate. Limestone Chalk Marbles Seashells

Argillaceous Raw Materials:

45 Argillaceous Raw Materials Argillaceous raw material is used as supply source of Silica, Alumina and Iron. Shale Clay Bauxite Soil

Typical composition of Argillaceous material:

46 Typical composition of Argillaceous material LOI 9.00 % SiO 2 60.00 Al 2 O 3 19.50 Fe 2 O 3 4.50 Cao 0.50 Mgo 0.30 SO 3 0.30 TA 0.80

Ferrous Raw Materials:

47 Ferrous Raw Materials As Argillaceous material can not supply of sufficient Fe 2 O 3 , Ferrous raw material is used. Iron ore (> 60 % Fe 2 O 3 ) Laterite (High grade > 45 %, Low grade <45 %) Copper slag (Around 50 % Fe 2 O 3 ) Furnace dust

Typical composition of Ferrous raw material:

48 Typical composition of Ferrous raw material LOI 5.20 % SiO 2 17.30 Al 2 O 3 10.01 Fe 2 O 3 65.06 Cao 0.52 Mgo 0.52 SO 3 0.30 TA 0.51

Siliceous raw material:

49 Siliceous raw material In case where argillaceous raw material supplying insufficient SiO 2 component, Siliceous raw material is used . Silica Sand (> 85% Silica) Clay Stone (> 70 % Silica) Granite (> 85 % Silica)

Typical composition of siliceous raw material:

50 Typical composition of siliceous raw material LOI 7.50 % SiO 2 85.00 Al 2 O 3 5.00 Fe 2 O 3 0.40 Cao 0.80 Mgo 0.35 SO 3 0.28 TA 0.50


51 Gypsum Natural Gypsum – It is available in nature. Synthetic or Chemical Gypsum – It is a by-product in Chemical/Fertilizer industry. Marine Gypsum – It is available in Sea shores.

Gypsum forms:

52 Gypsum forms Gypsum is available in the nature in three forms 1. Gypsum Di-Hydrate (CasO 4 2H 2 O) 2. Gypsum Hemi Hydrate (CasO 4 1/2H 2 O) 3. Gypsum Anhydrite (CasO 4 O H 2 O)

Typical composition of gypsum:

53 Typical composition of gypsum LOI 13.00 Sio 2 3.50 Al 2 o 3 1.00 Fe 2 o 3 0.50 Cao 35.00 Mgo 0.30 So 3 35.00 Na 2 o 0.50 K 2 o 0.50 P 2 o 5 1.00

Common conditions for the selection of raw materials:

54 Common conditions for the selection of raw materials 1. Easy to grind and burn. 2. Sufficient and stable supply. 3. Less variations of quality and proper chemical composition. 4. Handy.


55 Fuels Liquid Fuel Gaseous Fuel Solid Fuel

Liquid Fuels:

56 Liquid Fuels High Speed diesel Oil Low speed diesel Oil Bunker Oil Medium Fuel Oil

Typical Analysis results of fuel oil:

57 Typical Analysis results of fuel oil Density at 30 o C 0.953 Viscosity at 50 o C 129 cst Gross Calorific Value 10181 Cal/g Water Content 0.2 % Ash Content 2.80 % Total Sulphur 0.617 %

Gaseous Fuel:

58 Gaseous Fuel Natural Gas – consisting primarily of Methane. Difficulties in the use of Natural Gas are 1. Transportation 2. Storage because of its low density. Advantages in the use of Natural Gases 1. It burns more cleanly than other fuel (Oil and Coal) 2. It produces less CO 2 comparatively other fuel. 3. Heat energy of natural gas is 9314 Cal/g

Solid Fuels:

59 Solid Fuels Coal Pet Coke

Typical Analysis results of solic fuel:

60 Typical Analysis results of solic fuel Pet Coke Calorific Value 8574 Cal/g Volatile Matter 11.05 % Inherent Moisture 0.73 % Ash 6.89 % Sulphur 4.18 % Coal Calorific Value 6500 cal/g Volatile Matter 40 % Inherent Moisture 3.o % Ash 18.0 % Sulphur 1.50 % Total Moisture 15.00 %

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61 Coal – 1. It is a natural material and available in in many countries. It can be consumed 100 % in the kiln firing system. Pet coke – 1. It is a By-Product of a petroleum refinery. 2. It can not be consumed 100 % in the kiln firing unless cement plants are specially designed for 100 % pet coke consumption as the sulfur content in the pet coke is very high.

Suitable and Economical Fuel in Cement Industry:

62 Suitable and Economical Fuel in Cement Industry Coal is more economical and suitable fuel in cement manufacturing because its price is cheaper than fuel oil and it is available in many countries.

Alternative Fuels*:

63 Alternative Fuels * Wood chips - 2436 Cal/g Used tyres - 5321 Palm kernel shell - 4538 Saw Dust - 2500 Paddy Husk - 3822 Plastic - 6291 Paper cardboard - 2668

Usage of Alternative fuels:

64 Usage of Alternative fuels Alternative fuels such as wood chips, used tyres, Palm kernel shell, Saw dust, Paddy Husk and plastics can not be consumed 100 percent as 1. These materials are not available in huge quantity or required quantity. 2. Intermittent supply. 3. The calorific value of these materials are not as same as coal calorific value. 4. Generally cement plants are designed based on the CV of available fuel.

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65 Unless the cement plants are designed for alternative fuel, Alternative fuels can not be consumed cent percent. The purpose of Alternative fuel usage in the cement manufacturing is to reduce the cost of cement as the cost of main fuel is much higher than the cost of alternative fuels.

Selection of Fuel:

66 Selection of Fuel The selection of fuel is mainly depended on 1. Price* 2. Calorific value* 3. Moisture* 4. Sulfur* 5. Availability

Why the Cement Plants are generally built near the Limestone quarry?:

67 Why the Cement Plants are generally built near the Limestone quarry?

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68 75 – 90 % of main raw material for cement manufacturing is Limestone. So, To reduce the transportation cost of Limestone. The consumption of limestone in cement manufacturing is huge in quantity so it is very difficult to get the material from long distances.

What is quarrying? :

69 What is quarrying? Large quantities of raw materials are produced in various types of surface operations. Where the product is rock, the operations are known as Quarrying. Quarries are generally used for extracting building materials such as stones, sand and gravel.

Main Activities in Limestone Quarry:

70 Main Activities in Limestone Quarry 1. Removal of Overburden 2. Drilling 3. Blasting 4. Excavation

Quality of Limestone:

71 Quality of Limestone How do You judge the quality of Limestone?

Quality of Limestone:

72 Quality of Limestone Based on the percentage of Calcium Carbonate content, Limestone is classified into High Grade (> 90 % Caco 3 ) Average / Cement Grade (> 80 and < 90 %) Low Grade (< 80 %)

Characteristics of Limestone:

73 Characteristics of Limestone Hardness of Limestone Colour of Limestone

Hardness of Limestone:

74 Hardness of Limestone It depends on Limestone’s geological age. Usually older the geological formation, the harder the limestone. The hardness of Limestone is between 1.80 and 3.0 on Moh's Scale of hardness.

Softness of Limestone:

75 Softness of Limestone Chalk – Geologically it is relatively young and more softer than normal limestone. Marl – Limestone with admixtures of silica, clay substances and Iron oxide are called marl. Higher the content of clay substances in the material the lower their hardness.

Disadvantages with the Hard Limestone:

76 Disadvantages with the Hard Limestone Very difficult to Crush and Grind. Wear and Tear of Crusher and Mill parts are very high. Power consumption is very high. Hard to burn in the kiln Higher fuel consumption.

Colour of Limestone:

77 Colour of Limestone The colour of Limestone depends on the percentage of the admixtures of clay substances or Iron compounds in the Limestone as they influence its colour. The purest grade of Limestone are calcspar or calcite, which is white in colour (Un economical). The granular variety of calcite is marble which is available in natural in many colour (Un economical).

Harmful components in Limestone:

78 Harmful components in Limestone Some places Limestone contains harmful components such as Magnesium oxide, Alkalis, Ferric Oxide and Aluminum Oxide and Sulphuric anhydride in rich quantities and such limestone is not suitable for cement manufacturing.

Typical composition of Limestone:

79 Typical composition of Limestone LOI 38.00 % SiO 2 7.00 Al 2 O 3 1.50 Fe 2 O 3 1.00 Cao 50.00 Mgo 1.00 SO 3 0.30 TA 0.50

Processed Limestone:

80 Processed Limestone Limestone which comes from the quarry can not be directly consumed in cement manufacturing process and it must be processed. The processing means 01. Primary Crushing 02. Secondary Crushing 03. Stock piling or Homogenizing

Crushing of Limestone:

81 Crushing of Limestone In order to get required size of Limestone, it must be crushed by single stage or two stage crusher.

Single Stage Crushing:

82 Single Stage Crushing In single stage crushing, after crusher the stone over size material will be separated by vibrating screen and again it goes back to crusher for re-crushing. The disadvantages with this single stage crushing are 01. Throughput drops. 02. High Power consumption. 03. Difficult to get uniform size of material.

Two Stage Crushing:

83 Two Stage Crushing In this system the crushing is taking place in two stages i.e., Primary Crushing and Secondary Crushing. Primary Crushing - size reduction is taking place drastically. Secondary Crushing - required size can be obtained.

Stock piling / Pre Blending:

84 Stock piling / Pre Blending Crushed Limestone must be placed in longitudinal Stock piles or Circular Stock piles via the stacker. The advantages with this types of stacking are 01. The material can be homogenized partially. 02. Quality variations can be minimized.

Raw Mix Design:

85 Raw Mix Design In order to produce good quality cement, suitable and homogenized raw meal must be produced. To produce suitable and homogenized raw meal, suitable raw materials must be selected and blended them in a proper ratio.

Importance of Raw Mix design:

86 Importance of Raw Mix design To produce consistent quality of product. To run the kiln smoothly and effectively. To keep brick lining life maximum. To minimize the wear and tear of metallic parts of equipments. To keep the fuel consumption optimum.

Calculation Method of Raw Mix Design:

87 Calculation Method of Raw Mix Design Raw Mix can be designed by either Matrix calculations or using a simple programme in computer. Matrix Calculations are slightly complicated and time consumed. By using computer programme the design calculation is very easier and time can be saved.

Raw Milling:

88 Raw Milling In order to burn the raw mix easily and produce good quality clinker, the mix must be designed properly. The raw mix design is not same everywhere and it varies plant to plant. Based on the cement plant conditions it must be designed.

Fineness of Raw Meal:

89 Fineness of Raw Meal The fineness of raw meal influences burning process. The higher the residue the harder the burning causing higher free lime generation. If fineness is too low the disadvantages are 1. High dust loses. 2. High power consumption. 3. Unit cost of raw meal increases due to drop in throughput of the mills. 4. Possibilities of Cyclone blockages.

Blending of Raw Meal:

90 Blending of Raw Meal The blending of raw meal is very important as quality fluctuation in cement indicates poor blending/homogenizing of raw meal. Poor blending/homogenizing of raw meal leads to 1. Unstable operation of kiln. 2. Higher fuel consumption 3. Higher free lime generation.

Types of Blending:

91 Types of Blending Generally the raw meal can be blended by 1. Batch Blending 2. Continuous Blending

Transportation of Material:

92 Transportation of Material Blended Raw Meal is transported to preheater top via 1. Pneumatic pumps /Airlift pumps 2. Bucket elevator

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Preheating and Calcinations:

95 Preheating and Calcinations What does preheating mean? What is Calcinations? What are the advantages with Preheating and Calcinations? What reactions are taking place in the preheater when the raw meal is preheated /burned?

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96 Preheating means – Before feeding the raw meal into kiln it is being heated up in the preheater(various cyclones) is called preheating. The purpose of Preheating is 1. To increase the throughput of kiln. 2. To reduce the fuel consumption. 3. To reduce the free lime of clinker.

Reactions in the Preheater / Kiln:

97 Reactions in the Preheater / Kiln 100 - 200 o C – Evaporation of Moisture/Free H 2 O 200– 400 o C – Evaporation of Combined water 600 – 800 o C - Decomposition of MgCo 3 900 – 1000 o C - Calcinations 1000 – 1300 o C – Formation of C 2 S,C 3 A &C 4 AF 1250 – 1450 o C – Formation of C 3 S


98 Calcinations At 900 – 1000 o C the Caco 3 decomposes and liberates carbon dioxide. Caco 3 Cao + Co 2 The advantages with the calcinations are to increase the throughput of kiln and reduce the free lime generation.

What is Clinker?:

99 What is Clinker ? Burning the cement raw meal at different temperature in the preheater / kiln and cooling the resultant material is called clinker. It can also be called Semi product.

Colour of the Clinker:

100 Colour of the Clinker Generally well burnt clinker appears greenish grey in colour. Unburnt clinker appears brown in colour.

Typical composition of Clinker:

101 Typical composition of Clinker LOI 0.30 % SiO 2 21.50 Al 2 O 3 5.50 LSF 0.96 Fe 2 O 3 4.00 SM 2.26 Cao 66.50 IM 1.37 Mgo 1.30 C 3 S 58.54 SO 3 0.30 C 2 S 17.47 Na 2 O 0.25 C 3 A 7.80 K 2 O 0.50 C 4 AF 12.17

Clinker Minerals:

102 Clinker Minerals Alite - C 3 S Belite – Beta - C 2 S – β Belite – Gamma - C 2 S – γ Aluminate – Cubic - C 3 A – C Aluminate Orthorombic - C 3 A – O Ferrite – Alpha - C 4 AF – α Ferrite – Beta - C 4 AF – β Free Lime - F.CaO Arcanite - CaSO 4 Periclase - MgO Quartz - SiO 2

How do you Measure clinker mineral phase?:

103 How do you Measure clinker mineral phase? Clinker mineral phase can be monitored under microscope. The percentage of mineral phase of clinker can also be obtained instantly through XRD analyzer .

Advantages with the instant results of clinker mineral phase:

104 Advantages with the instant results of clinker mineral phase 1. Optimum conditions of kiln can be achieved. 2. Improve Clinker Quality. 3. Improve Clinker grindability. 4. Reduce fuel consumption.

Causes of high Free Lime in Clinker:

105 Causes of high Free Lime in Clinker The presence of high free lime in clinker may be due to 1. Inhomogeneous raw meal. 2. Raw Meal is too coarse. 3. LSF of Raw Meal is too high. 4. Inadequate burning.

Clinker Grinding:

106 Clinker Grinding In order to make final product, Clinker and gypsum must be ground together upto a required fineness of finished product. During grinding the Clinker and gypsum, the temperature of cement must be maintained to avoid the dehydration* of gypsum.

Dehydration of gypsum:

107 Dehydration of gypsum During clinker grinding, the temperature of cement exceeds 120 o C there are chances to occur the dehydration. Dehydration means Caso 4 2 H 2 o Caso 4 ½ H 2 o Gypsum di Hydrate Gypsum Hemi hydrate or Plaster of Paris Due to dehydration of gypsum false setting is occurring.

Applications of Cement:

108 Applications of Cement Type -1 Type – I is a general purpose of Portland cement suitable for all uses where the special properties of other types are not required. It can be used for Pavements, Sidewalks, Reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, railway structures, tanks, reservoirs, culverts, sewers, water pipes

Applications for Type II Portland cement:

109 Applications for Type II Portland cement Type – II Type – II Portland cement is used where precaution against moderate sulfate attack is important. It can be used for Drainage structures, large piers, heavy abutments, heavy retain walls.

Applications of Type III Portland cement:

110 Applications of Type III Portland cement Type – III Type – III is a high early strength Portland cement that provides high strength at an early period, usually a week or less. It is used when forms to be removed as soon as possible or when the structure must be put into service quickly.

Applications of Type IV Portland cement:

111 Applications of Type IV Portland cement Type – IV Type – IV is a low heat of hydration cement for use where the rate and amount of heat generated must be minimized. It is intended for use in massive concrete structures, such as large dams.

Applications of Type V Portland cement:

112 Applications of Type V Portland cement Type – V Type V Portland cement is a sulfate resisting cement. It is used only in concrete exposed to sever sulfate action. C 3 A content, generally 5 % or Less, is required when high sulfate resistance is needed.

Applications of Air Entraining Portland Cements:

113 Applications of Air Entraining Portland Cements Type IA, IIA, IIIA Small quantities of air entraining materials such as, organic substances are inter-ground with the clinker. The purpose of entraining materials addition are 1. To resist freeze-thaw action. (Air Entraining materials create and well distribute the tiny air bubbles in concrete). The air bubbles provide space for freezing water to expand without damaging the concrete.

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114 Raw Materials Grinding Blending & Storage Feeding into Kiln Clinkerization Clinker Grinding Cement Storage Dispatching

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