microbiology by Kumar San J

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this ppt is related to diseases caused by different types of microbes

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Group IIIrd from B.S.C. Biotechnology 1st yr. Bsc biotech 1 st yr.

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MICROBIOLOGY PROJECT FUNGAL DISEASES

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SUBMITTED TO : Dr. Akhilesh Tiwari SUBMITTED BY : Group III (Roll no. – 23 to 31) Pooja Praveen Rashmi Sachin Sandeep Sanjay kr. Shikha tomar Shipra verma Vaishali Vaishali Teotia

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Contents Aspergillosis Tinea unguium Cryptococcosis Chromoblastomycosis Histoplasmosis Mucormycosis Sporotrychosis Dermatophytosis

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Fungus is a single celled or multicellular organism fungi can be true pathogens that cause infection in healthy persons or they can be opportunistic pathogens. An example of a common fungus is the yeast organism which thrush and diaper rush. fungi are also used for the development of antibiotics, antitoxins and other drugs used to control various human diseases. fungul disease can be transmitted trhough food and water but a no. of fungul disease by fungul pathogens traansmit through direct contact. INTRODUCTION

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Aspergillus Aspergillosis is caused by aspergillus . Aspergillus is a common fungus found in soil, decaying vegetation, insulating materials, air conditioning vents and dust. Aspergillus can infect the lungs and form growing fungal masses called aspergillomas . aspergillomas . What is Aspergillosis ? Aspergillosis is caused by a fungus ( Aspergillus ), which is commonly found growing on dead leaves, stored grain, compost piles, or in other decaying vegetation. It can also be found on marijuana leaves. Rarely occur in people who have a normal immune system. The rare infection caused by Aspergillosis include Pneumonia and fungus ball ( aspergilloma ). (tuberclulosis). Several forms of aspergillosis : Pulmonary aspergillosis : Usually develop in those people who have already lung problems(asthma or cystic fibrosis). Aspergilloma(fungus ball) is a growth that develop in an area of past lung disease or lung scarring ASPERGILLOSIS

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People affected with Aspergillosis Location of spores in the alveoli and blood vessels and infection is taking place

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Symptoms : symptoms depend on the type of infection. Symptoms of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis include : cough, fever. wheezing, weight loss blood in the urine.bone pain,chills coughing up blood, decreased urine output headache, etc. Headache coughing up blood

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Diagnosis : Aspergillus antibody test Complete blood count Lung function test Immunoglobulin E (IgE) blood level Chest X-Ray CT-Scan Tissue BIOPSY Prevention : Be careful when using medicine that supress the immune system. Preventing AIDS also prevents certain disease, including aspergillosis, that are associated with a damaged or weakened immune system . Chest X-ray Tissue BIOPSY CT - Scan

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Treatment :

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Trychophyton rubrum Tinea unguium is caused by fungus Trychophton rubrum . These fungi can live on dead tissue of hairs, nails and outer skin layers. what is tinea unguium ? fungal nail infection Fungal infections include mold-like fungi that cause: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ring worm on the skin of the body or head. Fungal nail infections are most often seen in adults. They often follow fungal infection of the feet. Toenails are affected more often than fingernails. People who often go to public swimming pools, gyms, or shower rooms, and people who sweat a great deal, often have mold-like infections. The fungi that cause them thrive in warm, moist areas. TINEA UNGUIUM

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Persons affected with tinea unguium Symptoms : Nails changes on one or more nails (usually toenails): Brittleness Change in nail shape Crumbling of the outside edges of the nail Debris trapped under the nail Loosening or lifting up of the nail Loss of luster and shine Thickening of the nail White or yellow streaks on the side of the nail

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Diagnosis : Doctor will suspect a fungal infection based on the appearance of the nails. The diagnosis can be confirmed by scraping the nail and: Looking at it under a microscope to identify the type of fungus Sending it for a culture (however, it may take up to 3 weeks to get results) Prevention : Good general health and hygiene help prevent fungal infections. Do not share tools used for manicures and pedicures. Keep the skin clean and dry. Take proper care of your nails. Wash and dry your hands thoroughly after contact with any fungal infection.

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Treatment : Over-the-counter creams and ointments generally do not help treat this condition. In some cases, the health care provider remove the nail. Nails grow slowly. Even if treatment is successful, a new, clearer nail may take up to a year to grow in. Terfast Griseofulvin Epidemiology : A 2003 survey of disease of the foot in 16 European countries found onychomycosis to be most frequent fungal foot infections and estimated to be the most frequent fungal foot infection and estimates its prevalence at 27%.

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Cryptococcosis is infection with Cryptococcus neoformans fungus . Cryptococcus neoformans , the fungus that causes this disease, is ordinarily found in soil. It enters and infects the body through the lungs. what is cryptococcosis ? Cryptococcus is one of the most common life-threatening fungal infections in people with AIDS . infection with cryptococcosis may go away on its own, remain in the lungs only, or spread throughout the body (disseminate). Infection in respiratory track Minor pulmonary infection Skin, bones, viscera, central nervous system Cryptococcal meningitis CRYPTOCOCCOSIS Cryptococcus neoformans

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How it occurs in humans?

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Persons affected with cryptococcosis Symptoms : Diplopia-double vision/blurred vision Bone pain, chest pain, confusion, fever, headache, etc. Sweating-unusual, excessive at night. Swollen glands Unintentional weight loss Dry cough Excessive sweating Swollen glands Chest pain

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Diagnosis : Physical examination may reveal : Abnormal breath sounds Fast heart rate Fever Mental status changes Stiff neck Tests that may be done include : Blood culture CT scan of the head Sputum culture and stain Lung biopsy bronchoscopy Chest X-ray Prevention : Take the lowest doses of corticosteroid medications possible. Practice safe sex to reduc the risk of getting HIV and the infections associated with a weakened immune system. Complications Infection comes back Meningitis Permanent brain or nerve damage Side effects of medications (such as Amphotericin B) can be severe Bronchoscopy

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Treatment : Fluconazole Flucoytosine Amphotericin B Epidemiology : In 2003 to 2004, in 16 malaysian hospitals, 96 cryptococcal cases were reported over the 2-year period. 74(71.1%) patients were male and 45(46.9%)were between 30 and 39 years old.

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CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS Chromoblastomychosis is caused by Phialophora verrucosa. Phialophora verrucosa is a fungus became implanted under the skin, often by thorn or splinters. what is chromoblastomycosis ? It is also known as :- Chromomycosis, Cladiospriosis, verrucosis dermatities, phaesporotrychosis, etc. It is a long term fungal infection of skin. It spreads very slowly, it is rarely fatal & usually has a good progonosis, but it can be very difficult to cure. There are several treatment options. Including medications and surgery. The infection occurs most commonly in tropical or subtropical climates, often in rural areas. It can be caused by many different type of fungi which become implanted under the skin , often by thorns or splinters. Phialophora verrucosa

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Persons affected with chromoblastomycosis Symptoms : Chromoblstomycosis is characterized by slow growing flower, located usually on the lower legs but may also be seen in the faces. Skin injury Small flower like growth cause pain. Diagnosis : Scrap the lesion and add KOH, then examine under a microscope. KOH scrapping are commonly used to examine fungal infection. Scrapping from the lesion can also be cultured to identify the organism involved. Blood and imaging studies are not commonly used.

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Treatment : Antibiotics may be used to treat this infections. Itraconazole Amphotericin Prevention : There is no preventive measure aside from avoiding the traumatic inoculation of fungi. At least one study found a correlation between barefoot in endemic areas and occurrence of chromoblastomycosis the foot. Epidemiology : Chromoblastomycosis occurs around the world but in most common in rural areas. Over two third of patients are male and usually between the age of 30 and 50.

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HISTOPLASMOSIS Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasma capsulatum grows in soil throughout the world. The fungus grow best in soils with a high nitrogen content, especially those contaminated with bird manure or bat droppings . what is histoplasmosis ? It can also be called as Ohio River Valley Fever or Fibrosing mediastinitis. Having weakend immune system increase the risk of getting this infection. Very old or young people or those with AIDS, cancer, or an organ transplant have more severe symptoms.

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Persons affected with histoplasmosis Symptoms : fever, sweating and chills Cough and chest pain when breathing in joint pain red skin bumps called Erythema nodosum, most often on the lower legs. Shortness of breath Headache and neck stiffness from swelling in the covering in the brain and spinal cord. Red skin bumps Headache

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Diagnosis : BIOPSY of lung, skin. Liver or bone marrow. Blood or urine etst to detect histoplasmosis protiens or antibodies. to help diagnoses, doctor may perform: Bronchoscopy Chest CT scan Chest X ray Prevention : Histoplasmosis may be prevcented by reducing exposure to dust in chicken coops, bat caves and high risk location. Wear masks and other protective equipments if you work in these environment. Chest X-ray Bronchoscopy Chest CT-Scan Wear masks

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Treatment : Most of the time, histoplasmosis clears up without treatment, resting and taking medications can control fever. Antifungals may need to be given through a vein, depending on the form or stage of disease. AMPHOTERICIN B ITRACONAZOLE KETOCONAZOLE Epidemiology : Histoplasmosis is found in template zones worldwide : MISSISSIPPI, southern mexico, and certain parts of central and south america, africa and asia .in these region the fungus is found in high concentration in soil contiminated with bird or bat excreta.

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Mucormycosis Mucormycosis is caused by common fungi mucorales belong to a group of fungi called mucoromycotina . Frequently found in the soil and in decaying vegetation. Most individuals are exposed to these fungi on a daily basis, but people with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection. What is mucormycosis ? Mucormycosis is a fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs mostly in people with weakened immune systems. Conditions most commonly associated with mucormycosis include diabetes (usually poorly controlled diabetes), chronic steroid use, organ transplantation , leukemia, lymphoma, treatment with deferoxamine , and AIDS. Mucorales

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Persons affected with mucormycosis Eye swelling,Fever, Headache, Cough Dark nasal eschar (scabbing) Redness of skin overlying sinuses Sinus pain or congestion Shortness of breath Abdominal pain Vomiting blood Symptoms : Vomiting blood Abdominal pain congestion

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Treatment : Surgery should be done immediately to remove all dead and infected tissue. Surgery can lead to disfiguration because it may involve removal of the palate, parts of the nose, or parts of the eye. Chances of survival are greatly decreased. You will also receive antifungal medicines through a vein. Prevention : The fungi that cause mucormycosis are widespread, the most appropriate preventive measures involve improved control of the underlying illnesses associated with mucormycosis Diagnosis : Depending on where the symptoms are , CT scans or MRIs may be done. Evaluation by an ear-nose-throat specialist is recommended if sinus involvement is suspected. A tissue specimen must be taken and analyzed in order to make a definitive diagnosis of mucormycosis. MRI Test

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SPOROTRICHOSIS Sporotrichosis is caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii , which is found in vegetation. Infection commonly occurs when the skin is broken while handling plant materials such as rosebushes, briars, or mulch-rich dirt. Sporothrix schinkii what is sporotrichosis ? Sporotrichosis is a long-term (chronic) skin infection due to a certain fungus. Sporotrichosis can be a job-related disease (for farmers, horticulturists, rose gardeners, and plant nursery workers). Widespread (disseminated) sporotrichosis can develop in people with compromised immune systems when they inhale dust filled with spores. .

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Persons affected with sporotrichosis Symptoms : Body-wide (systemic) sporotrichosis can cause lung and breathing problems, bone infection, arthritis, and infection of the nervous system. Symptoms include a small painless red lump that develops at the site of infection and eventually turns into an ulcer. The lump may develop up to 3 months after an injury. Sores are often on the hands and forearm, because these areas are common injury sites. Ulcer

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Diagnosis : A physical examination reveals the typical sores. In some cases, a small sample of affected tissue is removed, examined under a microscope and cultured to identify the fungus. Treatment : Amphotericin B Itraconazole Flucanozole The skin infection is usually treated with an antifungal medicine called itraconazole. It is taken by mouth and continued for 2 to 4 weeks after the skin lesions have cleared. You may have to take the medicine for 3 to 6 months. Fluconazole is used in patients who do not respond to itraconazole.

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Prevention: People with compromised immune systems should try to minimize skin injury by taking measures like wearing thick gloves while gardening. Expectations ( prognosis ) With treatment, full recovery can be expected. Disseminated sporotrichosis is more difficult to treat and requires chemotherapy drugs. Disseminated sporotrichosis can be life-threatening for people with a compromised immune system. Complications Complications from medications -- amphotericin B can have serious side effects Bone infection Arthritis Lung and breathing problems (such as pneumonia) Meningitis Secondary skin infections (such as staph or strep)

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Dermatophtosis Dermatophytes Dermatophtosis is caused by dermatopyhtes feed on keratin, the material found in the outer layer of skin, hair, and nails. These fungi thrive on skin that is warm and moist, but may also survive directly on the outsides of hair shafts or in their interiors. what is dermatophytosis ? Dermatophytosis or ringworm is a clinical condition caused by fungal infection of the skin in humans, pets such as cats, and domesticated animals such as sheep and cattle. The term "ringworm" is a misnomer, since the condition is caused by fungi of several different species and not by parasitic worms.

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Persons affected with dermatophytosis Symptoms : Dermatophytosis tends to get worse during summer, with symptoms alleviating during the winter.[citation needed] Animals such as dogs and cats can also be affected by ringworm and the disease can be transmitted between animals and humans (zoonotic disease). Infections on the body may give rise to typical enlarging raised red rings of ringworm, infection on the skin of the feet may cause athlete's foot and in the groin jock itch.

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Diagnosis : Woods Test : This is a black light (ultraviolet light) with a magnifying lens. Only 50% of Microsporum canis will show up as an apple-green fluorescence on hair shafts, under the black light. The other fungi do not show. Microscopic test : The vet takes hairs from around the infected area and places them in a staining solution to view under the microscope. Fungal spores may be viewed directly on hair shafts. This technique identifies a fungal infection in about 40%–70% of the infections but cannot identify the species of dermatophyte. Culture Test : This is the most effective but also the most time-consuming way to determine if there is ringworm on a pet. In this test, the veterinarian collects hairs from the pet, or else collects fungal spores from the pet's hair with a toothbrush, or other instrument, and inoculates fungal media for culture.

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Treatment : Treatment requires both systemic oral treatment with most of the same drugs used in humans— terbinafine, fluconazole, or itraconazole Itraconazole Flucanozole Terbinafine Prevention : Avoid sharing clothing, sports equipment, towels, or sheets. Washing clothes in hot water with fungicidal soap after suspected exposure to ringworm. Avoid walking barefoot, instead wear appropriate protective shoes in locker rooms and sandals at the beach.

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Reference Internet www.google.com NCBI Wikipedia Books Prescott