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BODY FLUIDS AND CIRCULATION :

BODY FLUIDS AND CIRCULATION BY Smt.G.K.VINAYAGAM PGT(BIO) K.V,DHARWAD.

BLOOD COMPONENTS:

BLOOD COMPONENTS Plasma Formed Elements; Erythrocytes Leucocytes Thrombocytes

BLOOD PLASMA:

BLOOD PLASMA It has 90_92% of water,6_8% of proteins. There are 3 types of proteins. Fibrinogen –Helps in coagulation of blood. Globulin-Involved in defense mechanism. Albumin Helps in osmotic balance. It has minerals. Plasma without fibrinogen is called serum.

Leucocytes:

Leucocytes Colorless. Nucleated. Total count 6000 to 8000mm 3. Short lived .

ERYTHROCYTES:

ERYTHROCYTES Human RBC Is devoid of nucleus Biconcave in shape. RBC contains Hemoglobin. Life span is 120 days. Total count of RBC is 5-5.5 millions. Transport of respiratory gases.

TYPES OF LEUCOCYTES:

TYPES OF LEUCOCYTES Granulocytes Agranulocytes

TYPES OF GRANULOCYTES:

TYPES OF GRANULOCYTES Eosinophils; 2-3% of Leucocytes. Resist infections. Associated with allergic reactions.

NEUTROPHILS:

NEUTROPHILS 60-65% of Leucocytes. Phagocyte in nature.

BASOPHIL:

BASOPHIL It secretes histomine,serotonin& heparin. Involved in inflammatory reactions.

AGRANULOCYTES:

AGRANULOCYTES Lymphocytes; It forms 20-25 % of formed element. It is of 2 types B-Lymphocytes &T-Lymphocytes. Both are responsible for immune responses of the body.

Agranulocytes:

Agranulocytes Monocytes;These are phagocyte in nature.It forms 6 –8% of formed element.

BLOOD GROUPING:

BLOOD GROUPING Blood group Antigens Antibody Donor’s group A A anti-B A,AB B B anti-A B,AB AB A,B -------- AB O ------- Anti-A,B ALL

Structure of human heart:

Structure of human heart It is located in thoracic cavity in between 2 lungs. It is protected by pericardium. It has 4 chambers (2 Atria& 2 ventricles)

INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN HEART:

INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN HEART Heart is made up of cardiac muscle. Right auricle is separated from Right ventricle by means of a septum with 3 flaps called tricuspid valve. Left auricle is separated from left ventricle by means of a septum with 2flaps called bicuspid valve/mitral valve.

Conducting system of human heart:

Conducting system of human heart Cardiac cycle initiates from SA node( Pace maker). It also maintains the rhythm of heart beat. It is located in the right upper corner of right atrium. From SA node the electrical impulses reach the AV node. AV node is located in the lower left corner of the right atrium. From AV node it reaches the Bundle of His. Finally it reaches the ventricles through Purkinjee fibres. Human heart is myogenic in nature.

CONDUCTING SYSTEM OF HUMAN HEART:

CONDUCTING SYSTEM OF HUMAN HEART

Cardiac cycle:

Cardiac cycle

CARDIAC CYCLE:

CARDIAC CYCLE Diastole 0.4sec A.S(0.1sec) V.S(0.3Sec)

CARDIAC OUTPUT:

CARDIAC OUTPUT It is the amount of blood pumped by heart per minute is called heart output or cardiac output. Cardiac output =72*70 ml =5040 ml.

TYPES OF BLOOD VESSELS:

TYPES OF BLOOD VESSELS ARTERIES Carry blood from heart to different parts of the body. Carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary pulmonary artery. Deeply seated. Valves are absent. Have thick walls VEINS Carry blood from different parts of the body to heart. Carry deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein. Superficialy seated. Valves are present. Have thin walls.

DOUBLE CIRCULATION:

DOUBLE CIRCULATION

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Right Atria Right ventricle Pulmonary artery Systemic arota Left ventricle Left atria Pulmonary vein Body parts Lungs Deoxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood oxygenated blood oxygenated blood oxygenated blood oxygenated blood oxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood PULMONARY CIRCULATION SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

DOUBLE CIRCULATION:

DOUBLE CIRCULATION Pulmonary circulation Systemic circulation

ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH (ECG):

ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH (ECG) ECG; It is the graphical repersentation of electrical activity of cardiac chambers. P wave-Depolarisation of atria QRS _Depolarisation of ventricles. TwAVE_Repolarisation of cardiac chambers.

DISORDER OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM:

DISORDER OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Angina Pectoris Heart Failure

SPHYGMOMANOMETER:

SPHYGMOMANOMETER

HYPER TENSION:

HYPER TENSION A persistant rise in diastolic pressure above 90 mmHg and or systolic pressure above 140mmHg is termed as hypertension.

ATHEROSCLEROSIS:

ATHEROSCLEROSIS It is due to the deposition of cholesterol on the walls of arteries leading to narrowing of arteries. This also causes hypertension.

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS:

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS Loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries due to ageing.

MYOCARDIAL INFRACTION :

MYOCARDIAL INFRACTION Very low blood flow to the cardiac muscle. As a result cardiac muscle cannot sustain its function.

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