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Indian Renewable Energy- Liberalisation, Globalisation and R&D:

Indian Renewable Energy- Liberalisation , Globalisation and R&D Subair. K Mphil SSD CSSTPI CUG

Presentation Plan:

Presentation Plan Introduction India’s Renewable Energy Potential Methodology Renewable Energy Innovation System Organisational Architecture Structure of Renewable Energy in India Renewable Energy for Rural Applications Policy Network for RE Development Renewable Energy Regulatory Framework Renewable energy R&D capacity & capability Impact of Liberalisation And Globalisation Evaluation and Conclusion References 2


Introduction India is the fourth largest country with regard to installed power generation capacity in the field of renewable energy sources. India was the first Country in the World to set up a Ministry of non-conventional Energy resources in the early 1980s. The Greenpeace International, European Renewable Energy (EREC) in its report released in March, 2009 has projected that by 2050; about 69% of the electricity produced in India will come from renewable energy sources. The market in India for the Renewable Energy business is growing at an annual rate of 15%. The scope for private investment in Renewable Energy is estimated to about $3 billion.(OECD) 3

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India’s various renewable energy resources are Solar Energy Wind Energy Biomass energy Hydro Waste to Power Energy Geothermal Tidal Energy 4

India’s RE Potential:

India’s RE Potential Si Sources Estimated Potential Cumulative Achievemennts (31-12-2009) 1 Biomass power 21881MW 2136.50MW 2 Wind power 48500MW 10925.00MW 3 Small Hydro power 15000MW 2558.92MW 4 Waste to Energy 2700MW 65.01MW 5 Solar Power 50MW/ 6.00MW Total 88081MW 15691.43MW(17.81%) Source- MNRE 5


Methodology Data collected from secondary sources- different articles, research papers, some websites, books, Government orders, policies, acts and from MNRE and Planning Commission’s website 6

Renewable Energy Innovation System:

Renewable Energy Innovation System Defined as a network of institutions public and private, whose activities and interactions are central to the development, modification and diffusion of new technologies ( Freeman, 1987; Nelson, 1993 ). Both domestic and international linkages between institutions are particularly relevant for global energy innovation key partnerships include those between different agencies within governments; between the public, private and non- profit sectors; between developing- and industrialized-country institutions; and between domestic and transnational institutions ( PCAST, 1999 ). 7

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Actors Planning Commission MNRE CERC SERC IREDA SRDA(State Renewable Development Agency) Institutes/ Organisations Public Sector SEC C-WET SSS NIRE AHEC BHEL BEL (Public ) Private Sector Suzlon Enercon Tata BP Solar Vestas -RRB(Private), NEG- Micon 8

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Organisational Architecture :

Organisational Architecture 10


MNRE MNRE is the nodal Ministry of the GOI for all matters relating to new and renewable energy. The aim is to develop and deploy new and renewable energy for supplementing the energy requirements of the country. The History of MNRE Creation is Commission for Additional Sources of Energy (CASE) in 1981. Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (DNES) in 1982. Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) in 1992. Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) in 2006 11

The Solar Energy Centre (SEC) :

The Solar Energy Centre (SEC) Established in 1982 The Centre has been working on various aspects of solar resource utilization and technology development in collaboration with other research institutions, implementing agencies and industry. Serves as an effective interface between the Government and institutions, industry & user organizations for development, promotion and widespread utilization of solar energy in the country. Functions are Research and Development Human Resource Development Advisory and Consultancy services 12

Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET):

Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) Established in Chennai in the year 1998, as an autonomous R&D institution by MNRE. It has a Wind Turbine Test Station (WTTS) at Kayathar with the technical & partial financial support by DANIDA, Govt. of Denmark. Research and Development in C-WET are classified into five generic areas: Improvement in performance of existing Wind Turbine Installations. Research support for Wind resource Assessment. Humanpower Training and HRD Technology support to Wind Power Industry. Research and advanced Technology Development. 13

Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy (SSS NIRE) :

Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy (SSS NIRE) Is an Autonomous Institute under MNRE SSS-NIRE is an apex R&D Institute to carry out research and developmental activities in the area of renewable energy in general and bio-energy in particular. Research&Development Plan (2011-2016) are Biodiesel production technology, catalysis and resources (non-edible oilseed, algae etc) Hydro-cracking of waste plant/vegetable oil to obtain bio-crude and subsequent distilled products. Hydrogen generation from producer gas generated from biomass Cleaning, bottling and piping of biogas Hydrogen generation from bio-gas generated from crop residues. Use of hydrogen generated from biogas and producer gas as a feed stock in fuel-cells for electricity generation Use of producer gas for bio-ethanol generation via biological conversion route. Pyrolysis of biomass and its integration with the biological conversion techniques to produce ethanol. 14

Alternate Hydro Energy Centre (AHEC):

Alternate Hydro Energy Centre (AHEC) Established in IIT, Roorkee,1982. To promote power generation through the development of Small Hydropower projects (SHP). The centre carries out the environment and energy auditing of process and allied industries and small hydro projects. It provides services in the fields of Small Hydropower Development covering Refurbishment, Renovation and Modernisation of SHP Stations, Detailed Engineering Designs and Construction drawings, Technical Specifications of Turn Key execution/equipment Supply, Complete Investigations, Planning, Designs and Execution, Techno-Economic Appraisal, R & D/Monitoring of Projects, Remote Sensing and GIS Based Applications. Power System Planning and Operation, Energy Auditing Drainage/Irrigation Related Projects, Environment Impact Assessment and Eco-restoration, R&D in the Field of Other Renewable Energy Sources (Solar, Biomass, Wind etc.) 15

The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) :

The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) IREDA is a Public Limited Government Company established in 1987. To promote, develop and extend financial assistance for RE and energy efficiency /conservation projects with the motto: "ENERGY FOR EVER. Objectives of IREDA are To strive to be competitive institute through customer satisfaction. Improvement in the efficiency of services provided to customers through continual improvement of systems, processes and resources. To increase IREDA’s share in the RE sector. To maintain its position as a leading organisation to provide efficient and effective financing in RE and Energy conservation projects. To give support to specific projects and schemes for generating electricity and energy through new and renewable sources and conserving energy through energy efficiency. 16

Structure of Renewable Energy in India:

Structure of Renewable Energy in India Policy Making Central Government, MNRE Planning Planning Commission, MNRE Regulation CERC, SERC Equipment Manufacturing BHEL, BEL (Public ) Suzlon , Enercon , Tata BP Solar, And Generation Companies Vestas -RRB(Private), NEG- Micon Financial Institution IREDA R & D SEC, C-WET 17

Renewable Energy for Rural Applications:

Renewable Energy for Rural Applications MNRE has focused on rural applications through following activities National Biogas and Manure Management Programme .(NBMMP) Biogas based distributed/ Grid Power Generation Programme Remote Village Electrification Programme Village Energy Security Test Projects Special Area Demonstration Project Scheme Tidal Energy Electric Vehicle 18

GOI’s Initiatives:

GOI’s Initiatives Private sector companies are partnering with government and co-investing in R&D and technology development. Fiscal and financial incentives, such as, capital / interest subsidies, accelerated depreciation, nil/concessional excise and customs duties; Preferential tariff for grid interactive renewable power in most potential States following the provisions made under the National Electricity Policy 2005 and National Tariff Policy 2006, Uniform guidelines by CERC for fixation of such preferential tariffs being issued every year; Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission launched to facilitate large scale capital investment in solar energy sector, Payment Security Mechanism for grid connected solar power projects under the Mission. 19

Policy Network for Renewable Energy Development :

Policy Network for Renewable Energy Development New and Renewable energy policy statement 2005- proposed to send appropriate signals to industry, scientific and technical community, business and investors to indigenously develop new and RE technologies, products & services, at par with international standards, specifications, and performance parameters for deployment in a manner so as to arrive at an optimal fuel-mix that most effectively meets the overall concerns of the country. Electricity Act, 2003 – Promoted generation of electricity from renewable sources. National Electricity Policy, 2005 The Policy emphasized on the full development of feasible hydro projects and Laid down procedures for the speedy implementation of the same. Integrated Energy Policy, 2006 Emphasized use of Renewables for reducing dependence on energy imports. 20

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Rural Electrification Policy, 2006 The Policy recognized that non-conventional energy sources can be appropriately optimally utilized to make available reliable supply of electricity to each and every household. Various states give financial subsidies on renewable energy utilities like home lighting systems, solar water heater etc. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy also gives various incentives to individuals for installing various such utilities. 21

Renewable Energy Regulatory Framework :

Renewable Energy Regulatory Framework Regulatory interventions for promotion of RE sources through determination of tariff; specifying renewable purchase obligation (RPO); facilitating grid connectivity; promotion of development of market NTP has on the role of regulatory commission; mechanism for promoting RE and timeframe for implementation, etc. The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) suggests increasing the share of RE in the total energy up to 15 by 2020. 22

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Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) and Central Electricity Authority (CEA) are declaring, revising, and modifying renewable power regulatory framework such as RE policy, RPOs, Feed in Tariffs ( FiTs ), Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) mechanism, grid connectivity and forecasting provisions etc. on a regular basis 23

Renewable energy R&D capacity & capability:

Renewable energy R&D capacity & capability The role of RE R&D is important to promote energy efficiency, to secure India’s energy security. IITs hold maximum number of papers in solar energy research and are way ahead, followed by DRDO and CSIR. Among the universities, Shivaji University tops the list with 50 publications. In solar energy research 2-authored papers had maximum occurrence followed by 3 and 4 authored papers. In Wind energy IITs top the list of Publications In Bio-fuel, CSIR tops the list in publishing papers followed by the IITs and IISc while in academic sector Jadavpur University has published 10 research paper followed by BHU and Delhi University In Bio-energy India holds 8 patents. In bio-energy maximum numbers of papers are 2-authored or 3-authored Source- Web of Science 24

Impact of Liberalisation And Globalisation:

Impact of Liberalisation And Globalisation FDI Policy FDI-RE technologies and projects will be allowed 100% foreign equity through automatic approval route to attract FDI to this sector. Under the automatic route no prior Government or the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) approval needs to be obtained. Investors are only required to notify the concerned Regional Office of RBI within 30 days of receipt of inward remittances and file required documents with that office within 30 days of issue of shares to foreign investors. 25

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Special Economic Zone The SEZ Policy was introduced by the central government in 2000, till August 2010 more than 370 SPZs were established in India. SEZs were introduced in order to promote foreign investments, provide good environment for business, the territory is treated as a foreign enclaves, exempted from custom duties. SEZ’s authorities are bound to provide investments within its territory with the electricity connection. It may be done by establishing Independent Power Producer (IPP 26

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Financial Policy The income-tax laws allow 80 % of the cost of the windmill to be set off against taxable income. Income from power generation can get a tax holiday for 10 years. Concessions on import duty on specified wind turbine parts are offered. States provide for a guarantee market by entering into purchase agreements for power projects. State Electricity Regulatory Commission sets up electricity charges: the commission specifies generic preferential tariffs for renewable energy technologies; there is also a possibility to apply for determination of project specific tariffs. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) offers loans for renewable projects in private sector. 27

Evaluation and Conclusion:

Evaluation and Conclusion India has great potential and capacity for producing Energy from renewable sources Privatisation and foreign investment are making more complex Indian RE Scenario To reduce Energy poverty and to protect our Economy and Environment India must concentrate on renewable Energy Sources rather than Fossil fuels. India should focus more on RE R&D Private sectors R&D are less in RE field Government should give more incentives to promote private sectors into this field. 28


References A.Ashwin kumar , K.KARTHICK (2001), Clean Energy Resources Available in India, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol.2, No.1, February 2011. Subhash Mallah , N.K. Bansal (2010), Renewable energy for sustainable electrical energy system in India Energy Policy. B. S. K. Naidu, Indian scenario of renewable energy for sustainable development Energy Policy. Jyoti K. Parikh, R. Ramanathan , Linkages among energy, agriculture and environment in rural India, Energy Economics 21 1999. Understanding Energy Challenges in Indian, International energy agency. Website Planning commission Ministry of New and Renewable energy( www. mnre ) 29

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