research methodology

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Slide 1: 

1 Presented by : Sonali Kshirsagar Research Methodology

Slide 2: 

2 What is “Research” ?

“The advanced learner’s dictionary of current English” : 

3 “The advanced learner’s dictionary of current English” Research is a careful investigation or enquiry specially done through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge ”

“Clifford Woody” : 

4 “Clifford Woody” Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggesting solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis or not.

Why Research : 

Why Research Business competition Customers: their needs, their perceptions, and future requirements. Products: their pricing, positioning, packaging, branding, sales promotion and other promotional activities. Industry competition: you need to know what other companies are doing to increase their market share, factors responsible for increase or decrease in market share & trends in industry growth.

Scope of Research : 

6 Scope of Research Finance, Budgeting and investments. Purchasing and procurement of material. Production management. Product distribution management. Human Resource management.

Objectives of Research : 

7 Objectives of Research To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. (formulative research study). To describe accurately the characteristics of an individual, situation or a group. (descriptive research study)

Slide 8: 

8 To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. (diagnostic research studies). To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables. (hypothesis testing study). To verify and test the existing facts and theories. (descriptive study).

Slide 9: 

9 To develop new theories, concepts or tools for study of unknown phenomenon. (analytical study) To find many ways to solve a problem. Development of knowledge. Welfare of humanity. Classification of data.

Motivation in Research : 

10 Motivation in Research Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits. Desire to get respectability. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work. Desire to be of service to society. Curiosity about new things. Employment conditions.

Significance of Research : 

11 Significance of Research Careerism for Ph d students. Source of livelihood for professional. Outlet for new ideas for philosophers and thinkers. The generalization of new theories for analysts and intellectuals.

Research Types : 

12 Research Types Explorative/ Formulative Descriptive Vs Analytical Diagnostic Quantitative Vs Qualitative Applied/ Action Vs Fundamental/ Basic/Pure purpose Process outcome

Explorative : 

13 Explorative When you use no earlier study for your reference. When you study any of the topic in depth and which is done for the first time.

Descriptive Vs Analytical : 

14 Descriptive Vs Analytical Descriptive research aims at facts finding of different kind and is more based on surveys. The main purpose of descriptive research is description of state of affairs as it exists at present. The main characteristics of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables, he can only report only what has happened or what is happening. (no hypothesis)

Example: : 

15 Example: What was the turnover of the organization last year? What are the levels of job satisfaction of the employees? What are the number of complaints of an employee from the customers? What is the absentee rate amongst a particular group?

Slide 16: 

16 Analytical research on the other hand uses the facts and figures provided by the descriptive research or which is already available and analyses and evaluates them critically. An analytical research primarily aims at testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationships.

Examples : 

17 Examples On the basis of last years figure setting hypothesis: What will be the turnover for this year? How can the absentee rate among the employees be reduced? How can the number of complaints be reduced?

Quantitative Vs Qualitative : 

18 Quantitative Vs Qualitative Quantitative research is based on quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Example: Some organizations give more emphasis on quantity rather than quality. What are number of complaints of an employee at the work spot.

Slide 19: 

19 Qualitative research on the other hand is concerned with qualitative phenomena. Eg: Motivation in research

Fundamental/ Basic/Pure Vs Applied/ Action : 

20 Fundamental/ Basic/Pure Vs Applied/ Action Fundamental research is gathering information just for the sake of knowledge. There is no application or commercial aspect involved. Example: Research concerning some natural phenomena. Discovery Channel

Slide 21: 

21 Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industry. It may accidentally contribute to development of a new theory. Example: Administrative plans need actions so as to give perfection. Company adopts promotional activities. “ek key sath ek free”

Slide 22: 

22 Conceptual Vs Empirical Historical

Conceptual Vs Empirical : 

23 Conceptual Vs Empirical Conceptual research is related to some abstract ideas or theories. It is generally used by the philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to interpret the existing ones. Empirical research relies on daily experiences and observation alone often at the cost of neglecting theory or systems. hypothesis formulation is there. Eg. Boiling point of water.

Diagnostic : 

24 Diagnostic Diagnostic research aims to identify the causes of a problem and its possible solutions. To test the frequency with which some thing is associated with something else.

Historical : 

25 Historical Historical research is that which utilizes historical sources like documents to study events or ideas of the past, including the philosophy of persons and groups.

Research Methodology : 

26 Research Methodology The steps adopted by the researcher to solve the problem and the logic behind that is research methodology. The researchers need not only know to develop certain indices or tests, how to calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation, how to apply the particular technique but they also should know the which of these method are relevant and which are not.

Slide 27: 

27 It means that it is necessary for the researcher to design his methodology as the same may differ from problem to problem. The scope of research methodology is wider than the research methods. Thus when we talk about research methodology, we not only talk about the methods used but we also consider the logic behind using the particular method.

Research Process : 

28 Research Process Formulating the research problem. Extensive literature survey. Development of working hypothesis. Preparing the research design. Determining the sample design. Collecting the data. Execution of report. Analysis of data. Testing hypothesis. Generalization and interpretation. Preparation of report. Figure out what to research Design the way to do the research Gather data from respondents Generate findings and interpret them

Formulating the research problem. : 

29 Formulating the research problem. Two types of research problem: Those which relates states of nature. Those which relates to relationship between variables. Two steps involved in it: Understanding the problem thoroughly Rephrasing the same into meaningful result (objective) from analytical point of view.

Extensive literature survey. : 

30 Extensive literature survey. Once the problem is formulated, a brief summary of it should be written. The researcher should undertake extensive literature with the help of abstracting and indexing journals and published and unpublished bibliographies. The earlier studies if any which are similar to the study should be carefully studied.

Development of working hypothesis. : 

31 Development of working hypothesis. Working hypothesis is a tentative assumption made in order to draw certain conclusion. It has to be very specific because it has to be tested. The role of hypothesis is to guide the researcher and to keep him on a right track. It sharpens the thinking an focuses more on the important aspects of the problem. It determines the data collection methods.

4) Preparing Research Design : 

32 4) Preparing Research Design The researcher will have to state the conceptual structure within which he would conduct the research. In other words the researcher has to mention, what type of studies he would be conducting with minimum efforts, time and money.

Types of Research Design : 

33 Types of Research Design Descriptive Research Explorative Research Diagnostic Research Experimental Research

5) Determining the sample design : 

34 5) Determining the sample design All the items under consideration in any field of enquiry constitutes a “Universe” or “Population”. Counting of all the items in the population is known as “Census Enquiry”. The Census Enquiry is not possible in many cases. Hence we select few items from the population for our study purpose.

Slide 35: 

35 And the items selected is known as sample. The researcher must decide the way of selecting a sample is known as sample design. Example: A plan to select 12 medical stores from 200 medical stores of a city constitutes a sample design.

Sampling Methods : 

36 Sampling Methods Probability Sampling Each item has a known probability of being included In the sample. Types: Simple Random Systematic Stratified Cluster Non Probability Sampling Involves purposive or deliberate selection of units. Types: Convenience Judgment Quota

6) Collecting the data : 

37 6) Collecting the data Data can be collected through two types of information. Primary data. Secondary data.

1)Primary data : 

38 1)Primary data Primary data is the data collected for the first time to serve some specific purpose. Primary data can be collected by two ways: Experiments 2) Surveys The data is collected through experiments.

Surveys : 

39 Surveys Observation Personal Interviews Telephonic Interviews Mailing Questionnaire Questionnaire Manually Schedules

2) Secondary Information : 

40 2) Secondary Information Government departments. Magazines. Annual reports. Bibliographies.

7) Execution of the Project. : 

41 7) Execution of the Project. Possible answers of the questions. Occasional field checks. Proper training to the field officers..

8) Analysis of data. : 

42 8) Analysis of data. After collecting the data the researcher turns to a task of evaluating it. Editing: is the procedure that improves the quality of data. Coding: categories of data are transformed into symbols. Tabulation: is the technical part wherein the data is put in the form of tables. And at last statistical calculations.

9) Hypothesis testing : 

43 9) Hypothesis testing Do the facts support the formulated hypothesis? Or it happens to be contrary. Various tests such as chi-square test, T-test, F-test have been developed.

Generalization & Interpretation : 

44 Generalization & Interpretation If the hypothesis is upheld several times, it may be possible to arrive at generalization I.e. to build a theory. If the researcher has no hypothesis to start with the researcher may seek to explain his findings on the basis of some theory. This is Interpretation.

11) Preparation of the report : 

45 11) Preparation of the report Report of what has been done by him. Care should be taken of following things: The layout of the report. It consists of * The preliminary page * The main text * The end matter (report)

The preliminary page : 

46 The preliminary page Title, date followed by the acknowledge. Index A table of contents ( list of tables, graphs or charts if any).

The main text : 

47 The main text Introduction Main report Summary of findings Conclusion

The end matter (report) : 

48 The end matter (report) Appendices and Bibliographies

Slide 49: 

49 2) Avoid vague expressions such as “ it seems”, “ there may be” 3) Use of Charts and illustrations, if necessary.

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