Chinese_Philosophers

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Chinese Philosophies The Teachings of Confucius, Buddha and Lao Tze

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Confucius 551 - 470 B.C Confucianism is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Kong Fu Zi (first called Confucius by Europeans) Confucius developed a practical philosophy for life and government His ideas focused on: proper conduct for all respect for elders education government service hard work

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Code of Behavior This code of behavior involved five relationships: ruler and subject parent and child husband and wife sibling and sibling friend and friend Confucius believed that in these relationships people should be: loyal courteous honest faithful obedient to those in authority Confucius taught that everyone should follow a certain code of behavior. If people followed the code, their relationships would be harmonious and enjoyable

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Prominent Works The Analects The sayings of Confucius were remembered by his followers and were later compiled in a book of Analects (sayings), perhaps having been expanded on in the meantime. Through them we discover Confucius' notions of the virtues, i.e., the positive character traits, to which we should aspire.

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Lao-Tze 606 - 530 B.C. Daoism is a religion based on the teachings of Lao-Tze (which means “old master”), believed to be the first Daoist philosopher Lao-Tze taught that the goal of life is to achieve oneness with the Dao , a universal force connected to nature that cannot be explained, only experienced and felt Daoism teaches that humans should see themselves as part of nature and should understand change as part of everything.

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Lao-Tze’s views on nature Daoism stresses that the best way for humans to find peace is by living simply, in harmony with nature Lao-Tze taught that to discover how nature works you must sit by a river, feel a breeze, or observe a drifting cloud Notice that nothing in nature strives for fame, power, or knowledge, so neither should you

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Lao-Tze’s view on government Daoists do not believe in strong government, but that happiness and peace can be achieved by thinking about nature, not by following societal rules and laws.

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Yin and Yang Daoism teaches that harmony comes from balancing the opposite forces of nature, called yin and yang Yin’s attributes: female, earth, dark and cold Yang’s attributes: male, sky, light, and heat

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Sacred Works Tao Te Ching ( tao —meaning the way of all life, te —meaning the fit use of life by men, and ching —meaning text or classic) A collection of Lao-Tze’s teachings, but not written by him. Most likely written by teachers and students of Daoism

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Buddha 563 to 483 B.C. Buddhism is a religion based on the life and teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, which means enlightened one Gautama lived in India Buddhism was brought to China around A.D. 200 by Buddhist monks and traders

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The Four Noble Truths The Buddha’s teachings are summed up in the Four Noble Truths: 1) all life is suffering and pain; 2) suffering and pain are caused by desire for wealth, pleasure, fame, and power; 3) to end suffering one must overcome desire; 4) to overcome desire, one must follow the Middle Way.

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The Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path describes the way to the end of suffering It is a practical guideline to ethical and mental development with the goal of freeing the individual from attachments and delusions; it finally leads to understanding the truth about all things.

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The Middle Way The Middle Way is a philosophy of life that stresses virtuous conduct, and compassion for all living things. This leads to calmness and purity of mind

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Reincarnation Buddhism preaches reincarnation the idea that when a person dies, the soul is reborn in a new body The first goal in life is to attain nirvana , the condition of desiring nothing. When one attains nirvana, he or she breaks the cycle of life and death, and is no longer reincarnated into an earthly life of suffering. The final goal for Buddhists is to devote their lives to bringing others to enlightenment .

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Sacred Works The Tripitaka the earliest collection of buddhist writings and the most sacred text in Theravada Buddhism The word means "the three baskets and refers to the way the texts were first recorded The Vinaya Pitaka (discipline basket) contains precepts for monks and nuns the Sutta Pitaka (teaching basket) contains the discourses of Buddha the Abidhamma Pitaka (metaphysical basket) contains Buddhist theology The Sutras Mahayana and Vajrayana sects of Buddhism recognize hundreds of additional sutras recorded by masters after the time of the Buddha These writings are known as the Sutras The Sutras were put into writing between the second century bce and the second century Heart Sutra Diamond Sutra Lotus Sutra

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Review Get your clickers, ipads or cell phones ready….

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Who promotes hard work? Form2 was not exported from SlideRocket

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Who believes that to find peace one must live in harmony with nature? Form2 was not exported from SlideRocket

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Who does not believe in strong government? Form2 was not exported from SlideRocket

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Who believes in Reincarnation? Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Who preaches respect for elders? Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Who believes all life is suffering and pain? Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Who believes harmony comes from balancing the opposite forces of nature? Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Who believes suffering is caused by the desire for wealth, pleasure, fame and power? Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Who promotes education and government service? Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Who believes that to end suffering one must overcome all desires? Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Who believes happiness is achieved by living in tune with nature, not by following rules and laws? Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Who believes the first goal in life is to attain Nirvana? Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Critical-Thinking Identify which philosopher is most likely to have said each quote…

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Like a spider caught in its own web is a person driven by fierce cravings. Break out of the web and turn away from the world of sensory pleasure and sorrow. Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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If a ruler himself is upright, all will go well without orders. But if he himself is not upright, even though he gives orders they will not be obeyed Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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The more laws and edicts are imposed, the more thieves and bandits there will be. Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Life is a journey, death is a return to the earth, the universe is like an inn, the passing years are like dust Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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The sage, because he does nothing, never ruins anything, because he does not lay hold of anything, loses nothing Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Be respectful at home, serious at work, faithful in human relations. Even if you go to uncivilized areas, these virtues are not to be abandoned. Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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In a country well governed, poverty is something to be ashamed of. In a country badly governed, wealth is something to be ashamed of. Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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To know that you do not know is the best. To pretend to know when you do not is a disease Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without. Confucius Buddha Lao-Tze

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