Cooling Systems

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COOLING SYSTEM:

COOLING SYSTEM Sardar Patel Institute of Technology Automobile engineering

Purpose of a Cooling System:

Purpose of a Cooling System To remove excess heat from engine cylinders To maintain temperature below certain limits To help an engine warm-up quickly in extreme conditions

Types of cooling system:

Types of cooling system Air cooling system Water cooling system Oil cooling system

Air cooling system:

Air cooling system Cooling fins Cooling fins Cylinder Air flowing continuously over heated metal surface from where the heat is to be removed.

air cooling system:

air cooling system Advantages: It’s lighter in weight. Operated in extreme climates. Maintenance is easy. Disadvantages: Not easy to maintain Noise produce is high

Water cooling:

Water cooling Further, the water-cooling can be done by two different ways: Thermo-syphon system Pump circulation system

Thermo-syphon system:

Thermo-syphon system This is a simple and less costly method of cooling With reference to adjoining figure, the tank A represents cylinder jackets radiator to ensure the availability of cooles and tank B represents a radiator and water acts as the circulating fluid. The water jackets are kept at a lower level than t water to cylinder jackets. The basic working occurs as per the convection and conduction phenomena .

Thermosyphon system:

Thermosyphon system

Forced or Pump circulation system:

Forced or Pump circulation system This method is similar to previous one but, there is addition of a pump and a thermostat. The pump is used for circulation of coolant while the thermostat is employed to control the flow of coolant . The pump is driven by a belt from the engine crankshaft, which also drives the fan.

Components of Water-cooling system:

Components of Water-cooling system The main components of a water-cooling system are listed below: 1. Radiator 2. Radiator cap (pressurised) 3. Fan 4. Water Pump 5. Thermostat

Radiators:

Radiators Its basic requirement is to provide a large cooling surface for heat transmission from the coolant to the air. The hot coolant flows through the radiator tubes and heat is transferred to the fins and then to the air passing through radiator. Two types – Vertical & cross flow. The materials like aluminum, brass and copper are used for radiator core while brass, copper or plastic are used for tanks. Air movement through radiator created by a mechanical fan or by vehicle movement (ram air) dissipates heat.

How a Radiator works:

How a Radiator works

Air-flow in a radiator:

Air-flow in a radiator Air flows through the openings at the front of the vehicle, through the radiator and other heat exchangers, and exits past the engine. The fan with shroud assists the natural flow when the vehicle goes slow or is stopped.

Radiator Cap:

Radiator Cap The radiator cap creates pressure by holding the coolant in the radiator. The upper gasket prevents coolant from escaping to the outside. The lower gasket keeps a pressure in the radiator. The cam lock pushes the two gaskets against the sealing surfaces when the cap is installed. The safety stop prevents the cap from being opened too quickly.

Water Pump:

Water Pump A water pump is the heart of the Forced Circulation type cooling system. Water pumps are of impeller or centrifugal pumps. They enable more efficient circulation Some pumps are driven by accessory drive belts and some are driven by engine timing belts.

Fan:

Fan A fan provides air flow when vehicle stops or is at a low speed. It is usually driven by a V-belt from the engine crankshaft There are 3 types of fans Electric fan Clutch type fan Flex fan

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A flex fan is mounted to the front of the engine and operates continually when ever the engine is running. A Clutch fan is also mounted to the front of the engine but will only pull air through the radiator when the engine is sufficiently hot. An electric fan is used on front wheel drive vehicles and will only operate when commanded by the ECU.

Thermostat:

Thermostat A T hermostat is used to regulate the flow of coolant through-out the cooling system. A thermostat maintains proper engine temperature. Modern engines operate at higher operating temperatures. Therefore most modern thermostats open around 195 degrees F. The spring in this thermostat has closed the valve. When it gets hot, the heat motor will push the valve open. Installing a thermostat in the wrong direction can cause severe engine damage due to overheating.

Role of Anti-Freeze solutions:

Role of Anti-Freeze solutions Anti-freeze solutions are added to water in extreme winter seasons to lower its freezing temperatures below the danger point. The mixture of anti-freeze and water is called “Coolant”. Anti-freeze solutions lower the freezing point and raise the boiling point. Pure anti-freeze solutions have higher viscosity and do not flow well Coolant also protects the system from rust and corrosion.

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Commonly used anti-freeze materials are: Denatured Alcohol Wood Alcohol Glycerin Kerosene Sugar solution Calcium or Magnesium Chloride Ethylene glycol or Propylene glycol

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Thank’s

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