Edible Coating of WPC on jaggery

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This presentation is based on the project work performed by me along with my two classmates. The study was conducted to see the effect of edible coating of Whey Protein Concentrate on quality characteristics of jaggery. The methodology was adopted by another similar study conducted by Preeti Shukla ( http://www.primejournal.org/PJMR/pdf/2012/may/Shukla%20pdf.pdf )

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EFFECT OF EDIBLE COATING ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF JAGGERY

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Jaggery: Product of sugarcane juice Low cost, eco friendly and traditional Medicinal sugar . Types: Solid jaggery Liquid jaggery Granular jaggery

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Definition Made from sugarcane juice simply by evaporation. Solidified cane juice after removing as much of the non sugar matter as possible during clarification of juice while boiling the same to jaggery. For g ood keeping quality Relative humidity = 43-61% Moisture content ≤ 6 %

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Main Problems Liquefaction of jaggery during rainy season. Deterioration of colour during storage. Solution Application of edible coating. Edible Coating A thin continuous layer of edible material formed on or placed between food and food components. Example: “Whey Protein films”

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

REVIEW OF LITERATURE “ Jaggery is one of the ancient sweetening agents known to man and is an integral part of the rural diet in many countries. ” - Mandal et al. (2006) “ Conventional jaggery manufacturing process mainly consisted of extraction of juice from sugarcane, clarification of juice, concentration of the juice into syrup and its solidification as jaggery , and finishing and moulding of jaggery into different shapes. ” - Pandey and Narain (1993)

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“ Jaggery contains enormous wealth of minerals, proteins, vitamins and useful sugars. ” - Makde , (2006) “ Jaggery also becomes more hygroscopic at higher temperatures.” - Verma (1985) “The application of edible films and coatings can readily improve the physical strength of food products, reduce particle clustering and improve visual and tactile feature on product surface” - Cuq et al. (1995)

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“ The formation of whey protein-based films mainly involved heat denaturation in aqueous solution at 75-100⁰C, which produces intermolecular disulfide bonds, which might be partly responsible for film structure ” - www.enwikipedia.org

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

MATERIALS AND METHODS Raw Materials Fresh jaggery, whey protein concentrate and glycerol. Equipments Modified drying cum storage bin Hygrometer pH meter Weighing balance Paint brush Silica crucible Filter paper

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Physico -chemical characteristics Characteristic Instrument/Method Moisture content Hot air oven pH Digital pH meter Ash content Muffle furnace Reducing Sugar Nelson- Somogyi method Sensory Evaluation Hedonic scale rating

Preparation of Edible Coating Material Coating-1 , WPC(20%)::

Preparation of Edible Coating Material Coating-1 , WPC(20%):

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Preparation of Edible Coating Material Coating-2 , WPC(40%):

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Jaggery samples were placed on a table and edible coating solution was applied evenly using a brush. The samples were left for drying at ambient conditions for 3 hours. Application of Edible Coating on Jaggery

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Samples Under Study Uncoated jaggery Jaggery coated with 20% (w/v) WPC coating Jaggery coated with 40% (w/v) WPC coating Storage Conditions: Modified drying cum storage bin Temp. 27.2–30.7 °C, RH 43–62% Duration: 4 weeks

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Total Ash Estimation : 5 g of sample were taken in silica crucible. Ignited on a heater until fumes ceased. Shifted to a muffle furnace at 550±15⁰C until clean ash was obtained. The weight of residue was noted. % Ash content = x100 DETERMINATION OF PROPERTIES

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Moisture content estimation: 10 g of sample was dried to a constant weight at 100 ±1⁰C in an oven for an hour . The loss in weight was used to estimate moisture content using following expression: % Moisture content = ×100

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Immerse electrode of pH meter in the suspension pH Content: 10 g sample 10 ml distilled water + Suspension 

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10 g sample + 4 ml 20%neutral Lead Acetate soln. + distilled water in 100ml conical flask  Filter  25 ml clarified filtrate + 75ml distilled water in 250ml conical flask  10% Potassium Oxalate was added until no further precipitation  Filter  Nelson- Somogyi Method Reducing sugar estimation:

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Sensory evaluation Hedonic scale as per IS standard (IS: 6271, 1971) Colour Appearance Taste Texture Flavour Liked extremely 9 Liked slightly 6 Disliked moderately 3 Liked very much 8 Neither liked nor disliked 5 Disliked very much 2 Liked moderately 7 Disliked slightly 4 Disliked extremely 1

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Moisture Content Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week 10.53 9.2 10.67 Second Week 10.28 8.96 9.84 Third Week 9.98 8.8 7.87 Fourth Week 8.594 8.365 7.366 Moisture loss was maximum for control sample (30.9%) as compared to 20% WPC Coating (18.38%) and 40% WPC Coating (9.1%).

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Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week 5.6 5.8 5.8 Second Week 5.3 5.6 5.5 Third Week 4.77 4.9 4.8 Fourth Week 4.65 4.77 4.7 Acidity increased slightly, rate of increase were comparable as 16.9%, 17.7% and 18.96% for Coating-1, Coating-2 and Control respectively. pH content

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+ Ash Content Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week 0.856533 0.859 0.868 Second Week 0.860333 0.864 0.871 Third Week 0.863 0.861 0.88 Fourth Week 0.879767 0.8726 0.894 Ash content increased in all samples, ash content was slightly less in coated samples.

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Reducing Sugar content Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week Discarded Discarded Discarded Second Week 1463 1223 1296 Third Week 1710 1068 1368 Fourth Week 2555.555 2230 2846.67 Reducing sugar content increased during the study with uncoated samples having showing the maximum increase.

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Colour score Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week 8.25 8.5 8.42 Second Week 7.6 7.5 8.1 Third Week 7.05 7.14 6.71 Fourth Week 6.67 7.1 7.5 Uncoated samples had a good colour initially as compared to coated samples.

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Appearance Score Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week 6.8 7.2 7.4 Second Week 7.1 6.95 6.87 Third Week 6.84 6.55 6.32 Fourth Week 5.67 5.8 6.2 Appearance scores were comparable and no significant conclusion could be drawn.

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Taste Score Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week 7.99 8.2 8.05 Second Week 7.5 7.77 8 Third Week 7.44 7.1 7.42 Fourth Week 7.2 7.2 7.17 20%WPC coated samplesgave good results in terms of taste. Taste could not be retained in control samples.

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Texture Score Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week 6.84 7.01 6.56 Second Week 6.54 6.82 6.39 Third Week 5.25 5.33 5.46 Fourth Week 4.8 5.2 5.14 Due to moisture loss samples got dried hence scored less in texture score.

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Flavour Score Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week 7.21 7.31 7.27 Second Week 6.93 7.05 6.82 Third Week 6.54 6.82 5.97 Fourth Week 6.21 5.31 6.07 Quality of control samples degraded during storage.

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Overall Acceptability Score Week/sample Coating-1 (WPC20 %) Coating-2 ( WPC40%) Control First Week 8.25 8.42 8.51 Second Week 7.83 7.62 7.65 Third Week 7.33 7.42 6.89 Fourth Week 6.87 6.73 6.65 Overall sensory attributes of samples with 40% WPC coating were found best.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION:

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Moisture content and pH followed a decreasing trend in all samples with a maximum decrease in case of uncoated sample. Ash content and reducing sugar increased with a maximum increase in the uncoated sample. Colour was retained using WPC based edible coating. 20% WPC coating can be recommended since it has comparable properties but lower cost as compared to 40% WPC.

THANK YOU...:

THANK YOU...

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