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Industrial hazards and its safety measures.


By: krishnaveni_m_pharm (77 month(s) ago)

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summary Definition Introduction Types of Industrial hazards Physical Fire Electrical Mechanical Chemical Safety measures Protection and Prevention


introduction Industrial hazards is a major issue in present scenario. Some industrial plants, by the nature of their activities and the substances they use, constitute hazards which are all the greater when they are located close to residential areas for these and their residents are particularly exposed in the events for accidents.


definition Industrial hazards may be defined as the contamination of the Pharmaceutical industries that may cause irritation, toxicity and damage of the product, which are also harmful for product quality in the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing.

Industrial hazards:

Industrial hazards TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS: Physical Chemical Biological Psychological Mechanical

physical hazards:

physical hazards noise vibration fire temperature Electricity pressure fibres lighting humidity cold stress(hypothermia) heat stress (hyperthermia) dehydration (due to sweating) oxygen deficiency pressure non-ionizing radiation (Ultraviolet, Visible, Infrared radiation)

Chemical hazards:

Chemical hazards flammable/explosive materials, liquid or gases, vapours, solids, mists, smoke, fog or smogs, sensitisng agents

Biological hazards:

Biological hazards dust viruses bacteria fungi protozoa helminthes blood borne pathogens mould recombinant DNA molecules human tissues cell culture

Psychosocial hazards:

Psychosocial hazards workplace practices & systems, payment systems, type of work, risks involved in work, monotony, long working hours, lack of recognition, job satisfaction poor remuneration, poor man management, lack of welfare activities tensions at home Strikes unexplained reduction in production.

Mechanical hazards:

Mechanical hazards By type of agent: Impact force Collisions Falls from height Struck by objects Confined space Slips and trips Falling on a pointed object Compressed air/high pressure fluids (such as cutting fluid) Entanglement Equipment-related injury By type of damage: Crushing and Cutting Friction and abrasion Shearing Stabbing and puncture Poor maintenance/ housekeeping



Slide 12:

Hazard Occupation Health effects Heat Foundry, glass, heavy metal industries, underground mines, vulcanization of rubber, spinning room of textile industry Heat stroke, heat hyperpyrexia, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat cramps Cold Armed forces, food processing and preservation industry Chill blains, frost bite, trench foot, erythrocynosis Light Mines, driving Eye strains, eye fatigue, nystagmus, headache Noise Machinery in factories producing loud noise Permanent hearing loss, nervousness, decreased efficacy, annoyance, raised blood pressure, loss of sleep. Vibration Pneumatic drill users Vibration induced white fingers due to Raynaud’s phenomenon, osteoarthritis of wrists, elbow, shoulders Ionizing radiation Radiography, radioisotope use, processing of plastics, food preservation, chemical and medical research Glare and dazzle, pin and gritty feeling in the eyes Cancer, leukemia, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia

Safety materials:

Safety materials

Safety measures:

Safety measures Elimination/substitution and process modification Engineering controls The reduction of noise at the source or in the transmission path should be achieved wherever workable. Mechanically propelled vehicles or machinery Good house keeping practices Floors around furnaces should be of slip - resistant, non - combustible material, kept free of obstructions and cleaned regularly. Persons would be prohibited from entering furnace areas when the temperature exceeds 50°C. Foundries should be equipped with safety blankets, automatic emergency showers or hoses to extinguish burning clothing. Self - contained breathing apparatus must be used in emergencies when high carbon monoxide concentrations are suspected. Protective clothing is worn for protection against the heat radiating from the heat sources and against contact with molten metals.

Slide 15:

Protective clothing is worn for protection against the heat radiating from the heat sources and against contact with molten metals. Unacclimatised persons must be given time to acclimatize to work in the heat. Planned job rotation can assist in reducing exposure to heat. Cool water should always be available in close proximity to hot working areas and encouragement be given for the use of these facilities. All employees working with foundry hazards must be informed of the hazards and the precautions necessary to prevent damage to their health Personal Protective Equipment : Personal protective equipment such as goggles, padded gloves, ear muffs must be used by the Workers, the wearing of personal respiratory protective equipment, such as a face mask/respirator, is a complementary preventive measure together with local exhaust ventilation. Health Assessment : Pre - placement examination and periodic medical examination of all worker should be done annually for early identification of health effects and for documentation for compensation claims.

Fire hazards:

Fire hazards

Types of fire:

Types of fire Class A Fires: There are fires in ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, etc. those produce glowing ember. Class B Fires: These are fires of flammable petroleum products, liquids, gases and greases etc. Class C Fires: These fires involve energized electrical equipment. Class D Fires: These are fires in combustible metals.

Sources of fire hazards:

Sources of fire hazards Hot surface Fire hazards of materials and product Combustible and flammable liquids Heat utilization equipment Chemical process equipment Heat transfer equipment Lighting Gas cylinder Ovens and furnaces Dehydrators and dryers Quench tanks Reactors Welding and cutting

Causes of fire and explosion hazards:

Causes of fire and explosion hazards improper storage of flammable oils, grease and fluids, combustible wastes etc smoking by employees poor house keeping defective heating equipment and writing explosive gas leakage ignition of gases, vapour or combustible dusts inadequate of electric motors sparking in electric wires and equipment

Safety measures:

Safety measures

Production and prevention:

Production and prevention safe distance should be observed and regularly supervision and maintenance liquid is stored in closed vessel or system proper ventilation combination of good house keeping proper controls and interlocks, operator training and testing and cleaning evacuate the building immediately and warn the fire brigade shut off the supplement Prohibition of smoking in manufacturing Operating outside the range of flammability Fire alarms & fighting equipment or extinguishers to be installed in factory at suitable location Adequate and reliable water supply Removal of waste materials In order to exit in emergency suitable EXIT facility to be provided First aids

Electrical hazards:

Electrical hazards

Electrical hazards:

Electrical hazards Basically, electrical hazards can be categorized into three types. The first and most commonly recognized hazard is electrical shock The second type of hazard is electrical burns The third is the effects of blasts which include pressure impact, flying particles from vaporized conductors and first breath considerations.

Electrical hazards:

Electrical hazards Electrical hazards are caused by following reasons; Contacting overhead power lines; Faulty insulation; Improper grounding; Loose connections; Defective parts; Ground faults in equipment; Unguarded live parts; Failure to de-energize electrical equipment when it is being repaired or inspected; Intentional use of obviously defective and unsafe tools; Use of tools or equipment too close to energized parts

Slide 26:

Effects of Electrical Current On the Human Body Current in milliamperes - Effects 1 or less No sensation; probably not noticed 1 to 3 Mild sensation not painful 3 to 10 Painful shock. 10 to 30 Muscular control could be lost or muscle clamping 30 to 75 Respiratory paralysis 75mA to 4 amps Ventricular Fibrillation Over 4 amps Tissue begins to burns. Heart muscles clamp and heart stops beating RESISTANCE VALUE Type of Resistance Resistance valves Dry skin 100,000 to 600,000 Ohms Wet skin 1,000 Ohms Hand to Foot 400 to 600 Ohms Ear to Ear 100 Ohms

Causes of electrical hazards:

Causes of electrical hazards

Protection and prevention:

Protection and prevention Insulation- glass, mica, rubber and plastics are put on conductors to prevent shock, fires and short circuits. Guarding- live parts of equipment operating at 50volts or more must be guarded against accidental contact Grounding- “ conductive body(earth)” by grounding a tool or electrical system, offers low resistance and sufficient current carrying capacity Circuit protection devices- automatically limit or shut off the flow of electricity in the event of a ground-fault, overload or short circuit in the wire systems. e.g., fuses, circuit breakers Safe work practices Training

Safety symbols:

Safety symbols

Mechanical hazards:

Mechanical hazards

Mechanical hazards:

Mechanical hazards There exist several mechanical systems in the accelerator complex that could have potential hazards associated with them if they were to fail. Failure of any mechanical systems, could to implosion(in vacuum chamber) or explosion(in gas or liquid filled pipes) Other mechanical hazards may exist from machine shop tools, metal grinding, industrial vehicles, etc

Protection and prevention:

Protection and prevention Detection-direct observation or electronic monitoring systems Systems are designed with a factor of safety Education and Training : All employees working with foundry hazards must be informed and given precautions necessary to prevent damage to their health. Employees exposed to contamination hazards should be educated in the need for, and proper use of, facilities, clothing and equipment thereby maintain a high standard of personal cleanliness.





Slide 35:

Chemical hazards according to WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System) Class A: compressed gas, dissolved gas or liquefied gas Class B: flammable gases flammable and combustible liquids flammable solids flammable aerosols reactive flammable material

Chemical hazards:

Chemical hazards Class C: Oxidizing materials- oxidizer & organic peroxide Oxidizer : chlorates, nitric acid, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, nitrites, nitrates, easily oxidize metal powder Organic peroxide : tetrahydrofuran, diethyl ether, dioxane, methyl isobutyl ether

Chemical hazards:

Chemical hazards Class D: poisonous & infectious materials e.g., cyanides, tea salts, asbestos Class E: corrosive materials e.g., inorganic acids and bases, hydrogen fluoride Class F: Dangerous reactive materials e.g., ethylene dioxide, organic azides , Na, Li,Ca Pyrophosphoric materials e.g., white phosphorus, diethyl aluminium chloride, lithium

Safety symbols:

Safety symbols

Safety measures:

Safety measures Class A: compressed gas Store and transport with safety cap DO NOT store fuel gas with oxygen secure in an upright position use in a well ventilated area use the proper type of regulator Empty cylinders are marked “EMPTY” Class B: flammable materials keep away from any source of ignition Store in approved safety cans or cabinet Eliminate flames, static electricity & sparks from electrical circuits know where the fire fighting equipment is stored and how to use if volatile flammable liquids are stored in a refrigerator it must be in an explosion-proof(lab-safe) refrigerator Class C: oxidizers and organic peroxides use minimum quantities in lab NEVER replace unused peroxides into original container NEVER use a metal spatula to handle peroxide Refrigerate to minimize decomposition

Slide 40:

Class D: poisonous materials Safe storage pointers for carcinogens: Label all containers as cancer suspect agents Store according to hazardous nature of chemicals, e.g., flammable, corrosive When necessary, store securely Medical treatment Class E: corrosive material and inorganic acids Segregate from bases and organic compounds Store in a ventilated acid cabinet, store large bottle of acids on low shelf Know the location of eye washes and safety showers Store on lower shelves Never pour water into acid. Always add the acid to the water. add acid slowly, with stirring Use bottle carrier for transport acid bottle Have spills control pillows or acid neutralizers available in case of spill. Class F: Dangerously reactive materials Store in a cool place Store in containers that omit air Beware of low humidity circumstances in which static electricity may be high


reference Textbook of Pharmaceutical Engineering by Sambamoorthy Pharmaceutics-I by C.V.S.Subramaniyam Article- Human _ Resources



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