ERGONOMICS AND HUMAN WORK SYSTEMS

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ERGONOMICS AND HUMAN WORK SYSTEMS:

ERGONOMICS AND HUMAN WORK SYSTEMS By Madhu Shankar Undurty

WHAT IS ERGONOMICS?:

WHAT IS ERGONOMICS? Ergonomics, also known as human factors, is the scientific discipline that seeks to understand and improve human interactions with products, equipment, environments and systems.

NEED FOR ERGONOMICS THROUGH HISTORY:

NEED FOR ERGONOMICS THROUGH HISTORY Derived from the Greek words ergon (work) and nomos (natural laws). Combined, it means THE LAWS OF WORK.

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Evidence suggests that the disciplines of Ergonomics were followed since the times of ancient Greek and Egyptian civilizations. Developed in the 19 th Century by Frederick Winslow Taylor. Industrial approach pioneered by Frank and Lilian Gilbreth .

MAN-MACHINE SYTEMS:

MAN-MACHINE SYTEMS Man-Machine system is defined as an operating combination of one or more men with one or more machines to bring about a desired output from a given input within the constraints of environment

PERFORMANCE FACTORS:

PERFORMANCE FACTORS Human capabilities

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Elements of machine compatible to human capabilities

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Environment under which the system works

CHARACTERISTICS OF MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS:

CHARACTERISTICS OF MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS 3 main characteristics Purpose of activity Organised (parallel or series) system components or sub-systems. Suitable design for work

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Simple Man-Machine System Model

PURPOSE OF ERGONOMICS FOR MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS:

PURPOSE OF ERGONOMICS FOR MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS IMPROVE EFFICIENCY Efficiency is quite simply making something easier to do. Reducing the strength required makes a process more physically efficient. Reducing the number of steps in a task makes it quicker (i.e. efficient) to complete. Reducing the number of parts makes repairs more efficient. Reducing the amount of training needed

OTHER PURPOSES INCLUDE:

OTHER PURPOSES INCLUDE Improve communication Improve usability of a machine, component or equipment Improve organization(data flow, process flow, storage procedure, etc.)

OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS:

OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS Sensing minimum stimulae .

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Amplification, flexibility, switching.

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Long term storage.

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Perception of space, depth and pattern, interpolation, extrapolation, translation.

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Making judgement and prediction etc..

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Functions best to allocate to a machine: Computing, differentiation, integration. Response at great speed. Short-term information storage(memory) Simple yes/no decision . Greater-than-capability physical work

ERGONOMICS COMPONENTS OF MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS:

ERGONOMICS COMPONENTS OF MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS 2 major components Display Controls

TYPES OF VISUAL DISPLAY:

TYPES OF VISUAL DISPLAY Quantitative displays Qualitative displays Representative displays Alphanumeric displays

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QUANTITATIVE DISPLAY They provide information's regarding the state of process under dynamic or static conditions in numerical values This can also be used for auditory displays by converting it into speech communication It can be divided into two categories, Analogue and Digital displays

Analog Display:

Analog Display Fixed pointer moving scale

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Fixed scale moving pointer

Digital Display:

Digital Display

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QUALITATIVE DISPLAY These displays provide information about a limited number of discrete states of same variable They provide information about rate of change of deviation of a value from a desired value For eg:if switch open or closed,if temperature is too hot or cold

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ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAYS They provide information by means of alphanumeric characters Under favorable conditions, the height(H) should be related to viewing distance(D) H/D = 0.003 to 0.005

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REPRESENTATIVE DISPLAY

CONTROLS:

CONTROLS Cranks

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Levers

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Knobs

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Hand Wheels

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Joysticks

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Pedals

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Buttons and switches

ERGONOMICS IN EVERDAY APPLICATIONS:

ERGONOMICS IN EVERDAY APPLICATIONS

Manufacturing Industries:

Manufacturing Industries

Automobiles:

Automobiles

Offices:

Offices

Household Appliances:

Household Appliances

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AND MANY, MANY MORE…..

References:

References Text book of work study and ergonomics by Suresh Dalela and Saurabh Google images Wikipedia.org Ergonomics.about.com

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THANK YOU

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