pesticides

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Pesticides & weedicides:

Pesticides & weedicides Presented by Koushik Nandan Dutta M.Pharm 2 nd Sem Dept. of pharmacognosy GRD(PG)IMT

Defination:

Pest is any animal, plant or microorganism that causes trouble injuries or destruction. Pesticides may be defined as simply as chemical agents used to control or eliminate pest. Defination

Method of pest controal:

Natural control Artificial control Mechanical control Agricultural control Chemical control Biological control Method of pest controal

Types of pests:

Rodents Insects Weeds Fungi Types of pests

Classification of Pesticides:

Insecticides Herbicides Fungicides Rodenticides Classification of Pesticides

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Essential for a good pesticides:- It should have a high margin of safety. It should be easy to handle and apply It should not show toxicity in case of warm blooded animals. It should not have inflammable characters. It should be available easily at affordable cost.

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Natural pesticides:- Natural pesticides are a cheap and safer alternative to products bought in a store. Leaves, barks, seeds and wood can have toxic effect on different pests.

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1.Pyrethum flowers:- Synonym:- Insect flowers Biological source:- It consist of dried flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium family- Compositae Geographical source:- Japan,Brazil,Kenya,India Macroscopic characters:- Colour -Cream to straw coloured Odour :-Aromatic Taste:-Bitter followed by numbness Size:-10-15 mm in diameter Shape:-Flat with convex receptable

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Chemical consistuent :- The main chemical consistuent are pyrethin I & pyrethin II.It also contains cinerin I,cinerin II, Jasmolin I, Jasmolin II. Uses:- Pyrethrum is widely used in domastic and agricultural insecticidal sprays,dusring powders and aerosol preparation for controlling of pests

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Pyrethum flower-

2.Neem:

Synonym:- Margosa Biological source:-It consist of all aerial parts of Azadirachta i ndica ,family- Meliaceae Geographical source:-India, Pakistan, Srilanka etc… Chemical consistuent :-It mostly contain- Nimbin Nimbidin Azadirachtin Salanin Nimbolin B 2.Neem

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Uses:-It mainly used as Insect repellant Insecticide Anti feedant Nematicide Anti microbial agent Spermicidal

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Neem -

3.Tobacco:

Biological source:-It consist of dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum , family- solanaceae Geographical source:- China,U.S.A.,India Macroscopic characters:- Colour -flowers are light- red,white or pink in colour.Seeds are brown in colour Size- Sseeds are 0.5mm in diameter.Flowers are 1.5-2.0 in cm. 3.Tobacco

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Chemical consistuent :- It contains- Nicotine Nornicotine Anabasine Uses-Nicotine exerts stimulant effects on heart and nervous system.It is powerful quick acing poison.It is also used as insecticides.

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Tobacco-

Some other natural pesticides are-:

Cevadilla Derris Ryania Nux-vomica Citronella Some other natural pesticides are-

Chemical structure :

Pyrethrin Nicotine Chemical structure

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Common name Chemical consistuent Use NEEM Ninbin,Nimbidin , Solanin,Nimbolin B Anti- feedant , Nematicide , Antimicrobial TOBACCO Nicotine,Nornicotine , Anabasine Insecticide,Stimulant effect on heart PYRETHRUM FLOWER Pyrethrin I,Pyrethrin II Cinerin I, Cinerin II Insecticidal spray,Dusting powder CEVADILLA Veratrine,Cevadine , Sabadine Pesticides,Taenicide

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Weedicides - Herbicide is commonly known as a weed killer, it is a type of pesticide used to kill unwanted plants.

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The common weeds found in wheat & rice fields are:- Amaranthus Chenopodium Grasses Convolvulnus

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Weed control:- The various methods of control of weeds are- Mechanical methods Agricultural methods Biological methods Chemical methods

References-:

Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy , 26th ed.India , Nirali Prakashan , 2004, pn 592-603 Ansari S.H.,Essential of pharmacognosy,1 st ed.,Birla publication,2005,pn 621-636 Rangari vinod D,Pharmacognosy & phytochemistry , vol II,2 nd ed.,Career publication,2009 pn 146-161 References-

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Ali Mohammed,Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry,vol I,CBS publishers,Vol 1,edition 1,P.N. 786-789 Evans.C.William,Pharmacogosy,Edition 16,Sauders Elsevier,P.N . 533

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THANK YOU