epistaxis

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NOSE:

NOSE PRESENTED BY KOMAL SOOMRO 3 RD YEAR MBBS

EPISTAXIS::

EPISTAXIS:

PowerPoint Presentation:

Bleeding from inside the nose is called epistaxis. Seen in all age groups. CAUSES OF EPISTAXIS : Local General Idiopathic LOCAL CAUSE: Trauma Infections Acute: viral rhinitis, nasal diphtheria, acute sinusitis. Chronic: all crust forming diseases.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Foreign bodies Neoplasms of nose and paranasal sinuses. Benign: papilloma Malignant: carcinoma Adenoiditis GENERAL CAUSES: Cardiovascular system: hypertension and atherosclerosis Disorders of blood and blood vessels Liver diseases, hepatic cirrhosis Kidney diseases, chronic nephritis drugs: excessive use of salicylates

PowerPoint Presentation:

Vicarious menstruation: (epistaxis occurring at the time of menstruation) IDIOPATHIC: Many times the cause of epistaxis is not clear SITE OF EPISTAXIS: Little’s area. In 90% cases Above the level of middle turbinate Below the level of middle turbinate Posterior part of nasal cavity Nasopharynx

CLASSIFICATION OF EPISTAXIS::

CLASSIFICATION OF EPISTAXIS: ANTERIOR EPISTAXIS POSTERIOR EPISTAXIS ANTERIOR EPISTAXIS: when blood flows out from the front of nose with the patient in sitting position. POSTERIOR EPISTAXIS: blood flows back into the throat.

TREATMENT::

TREATMENT: FIRST AID: most of the time, bleeding occurs from the little’s area and can be easily controlled by pinching the nose with thumb and index finger for 5 minutes. This compresses the vessels of the little’s area.

ANTERIOR NASAL PACKING::

ANTERIOR NASAL PACKING: If bleeding is profuse and/or the site of bleeding is difficult to localize, anterior packing should be done. Ribbon gauze soaked with liquid paraffin. About 1 meter gauze(2.5cm wide in adults and 12mm in children) is required for each nasal cavity. First, few centimeters of gauze are folded upon itself and inserted along the floor, and then the whole nasal cavity is packed tightly by layering the gauze from floor to the roof and from before backwards. Can be removed after 24 hours of bleeding has stopped

ANTERIOR NASAL PACKING::

ANTERIOR NASAL PACKING:

POSTERIOR NASAL PACKING::

POSTERIOR NASAL PACKING: For the patients bleeding posteriorly into the throat. A postnasal pack is prepared by tying three silk ties to a piece of guaze rolled into the shape of a cone. Patients requring postnasal pack should always be hospitalized . Folley’s catheter can also be used. Nasal ballon’s are also available.

POSTERIOR NASAL PACKING::

POSTERIOR NASAL PACKING: