logging in or signing up RISE OF NATIONALISM knowledgeispower0803 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 1100 Category: Entertainment License: All Rights Reserved Like it (2) Dislike it (0) Added: October 14, 2010 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: ahmed077 (22 month(s) ago) plz allow e to download this ppt Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: RAJENDRAPRASADMEENA (29 month(s) ago) plz allow nt download for students only, really it is the god one. Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript The Rise of Nationalism in Germany and Hungary : The Rise of Nationalism in Germany and Hungary And Its Effects Upon Their Ethnic and Linguistic Minority Populations Laura Lea SLAV 467, Fall 2006 Overview : Overview Concept of Nationalism Its relationship to language Rise of Nationalism in Germany Policies toward linguistic & ethnic minorities Rise of Nationalism in Hungary Policies toward linguistic & ethnic minorities Conclusions Nationalism : Nationalism Collective national consciousness, often based upon: Common cultural heritage Common history or memory Common descent (or myth of such) Common language (Safran) Nationalism : Nationalism 18th century: “Linguistic Nation” Concept develops from Enlightenment thought 19th century: “Age of Nationalism” “Linguistic Nation” concept is politicized, used in creation of nation-states (Safran) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany Pride in origins: Romantic Nationalism Johann Gottfried Herder Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm Johann Gottlieb Fichte Political unity: 1871: unified German Reich Otto von Bismarck (Dow; Verheyen) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany Power consolidation by Otto von Bismarck: Social and political reforms Create sense of national loyalty: Policies to further German language and culture Provide political stability: “Reichsfeinde” “Kulturkampf” (Koschnirk and von Specht) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany “Germanization” the enculturation of non-Germans into German living, society values and beliefs Germanization efforts under Bismarck: Language restrictions Appropriation of property (Best; Koschnirk and von Specht) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany Post-World War I: Treaty of Versailles Territory loss = growing irredentism Ideologically-perverted linguistic scholarship Misrepresentation of Darwinism “Race” becomes primary marker of ethnic identity (Verheyen; Dow; Scheck) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany Germanization efforts under Hitler’s Third Reich: Separation of families “Suitable” children removed from racially “unacceptable” parents Ethnic inhabitants of occupied territories Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary Magyar history: Finno-Ugric nomadic people Uralic language Carpathian Basin, 9th century AD Crossroads of Central Europe, therefore often overrun Region shared with numerous ethnic groups (Mésáros; Medgyes and Miklósy) Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary Habsburg Hungary: Germanization Revolution (1848) Germanization The Compromise of 1867: Dual Monarchy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Hungarian autonomy within the Habsburg Empire (Mésáros; Seton-Watson; Spira) Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary Hungarian government efforts to: transform the multilingual Hungarian territory into a national Magyar state assure a totally Magyar character to Hungary Population demographic problem (Pâclisanu) Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary Law of Equal Rights of the Nationalities (1868): Every citizen a Hungarian Official use of other languages recognized But Hungarian as official state language Seemingly enlightened liberal approach to integration, however. . . Vague, ambiguous provisions Neither enforceability nor sanctions (Seton-Watson; Edizioni Europa) Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary “Magyarization” Of minority schools Count Apponyi’s School Law of 1907 Society for Name Magyarisation (1881) 1898 guide Name change registration / fees Geographical names (Seton-Watson; Pâclisanu; Edizioni Europa) Conclusions : Conclusions Language as base element of ethnic identity for both Germans and Hungarians Policies toward linguistic and ethnic minorities: Germanization Unification of German state; sense of Aryan superiority Magyarization Secure viability of Magyar state, language, culture; sense of Magyar superiority Exacerbation of anti-German and anti-Magyar sentiments Disastrous effects upon territory & populations of both post-World War II Bibliography : Bibliography Elizabeth Kirkley Best, “Aryanization: Lebensraum, Germanization, Judenrein,” Shoah Education Project (2003) [online]; available from http://www.shoaheducation.com/aryan.html. James R. Dow, “Germany,” in Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). Edizioni Europa, “Legislation on Fundamental Rights,” in How to Become a Hungarian: The Artificial Reproduction of a People (Rome: Edizioni Europa, 1977). Leonore Koschnirk and Agnete von Specht, “The Social Dimension – ‘Founders’ and ‘Enemies of the Empire’,” Bismarck – Prussia, Germany, and Europe, (Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin: 2000) [exhibition online]; available from http://www.dhm.de/ENGLISH/ausstellungen/bismarck/169.htm. Péter Medgyes and Katalin Miklósy, “The Language Situation in Hungary,” in Language Planning and Policy in Europe, Vol. 1: Hungary, Finland and Sweden, ed. Robert B. Kaplan and Richard B. Baldauf, Jr. (Tonawanda, New York: UTP, 2005). Július Mésáros, “Foreword,” in Old Hungary and the Coexistence of its Nations, ed. Martin C. Styan (Bratislava: Kubko Goral, 1997). Bibliography : Bibliography Zenobius Pâclisanu, “The Austro-Hungarian Dualism,” in Hungary’s Struggle to Annihilate its National Minorities, Based on Secret Hungarian Documents, trans. Dora Kennedy (Miami Beach: Romanian Historical Studies, 1985). William Safran, “Nationalism,” in Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). Raffael Scheck, “The Bismarckian Empire, 1871-1890,” Germany and Europe, 1871-1945, (Colby College, Waterville, Maine: cited 16 Sep. 2006) [lecture notes online]; available from http://www.colby.edu/personal/r/rmscheck/GermanyB1.html. Robert William Seton-Watson, “The Revolution of 1848,” in Racial Problems in Hungary, reprint of 1908 edition (New York: Howard Fertig, 1972). Thomas Spira, “Hungary’s Minority Policy Before World War I,” in German-Hungarian Relations and the Swabian Problem, from Károlyi to Gömbös, 1919-1936 (Boulder: East European Quarterly, 1977). Dirk Verheyen, The German Question: A Cultural, Historical, and Geopolitical Exploration, 2nd ed. (Boulder: Westview Press, 1999). You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.