RISE OF NATIONALISM

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The Rise of Nationalism in Germany and Hungary : 

The Rise of Nationalism in Germany and Hungary And Its Effects Upon Their Ethnic and Linguistic Minority Populations Laura Lea SLAV 467, Fall 2006

Overview : 

Overview Concept of Nationalism Its relationship to language Rise of Nationalism in Germany Policies toward linguistic & ethnic minorities Rise of Nationalism in Hungary Policies toward linguistic & ethnic minorities Conclusions

Nationalism : 

Nationalism Collective national consciousness, often based upon: Common cultural heritage Common history or memory Common descent (or myth of such) Common language (Safran)

Nationalism : 

Nationalism 18th century: “Linguistic Nation” Concept develops from Enlightenment thought 19th century: “Age of Nationalism” “Linguistic Nation” concept is politicized, used in creation of nation-states (Safran)

Nationalism in Germany : 

Nationalism in Germany Pride in origins: Romantic Nationalism Johann Gottfried Herder Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm Johann Gottlieb Fichte Political unity: 1871: unified German Reich Otto von Bismarck (Dow; Verheyen)

Nationalism in Germany : 

Nationalism in Germany Power consolidation by Otto von Bismarck: Social and political reforms Create sense of national loyalty: Policies to further German language and culture Provide political stability: “Reichsfeinde” “Kulturkampf” (Koschnirk and von Specht)

Nationalism in Germany : 

Nationalism in Germany “Germanization” the enculturation of non-Germans into German living, society values and beliefs Germanization efforts under Bismarck: Language restrictions Appropriation of property (Best; Koschnirk and von Specht)

Nationalism in Germany : 

Nationalism in Germany Post-World War I: Treaty of Versailles Territory loss = growing irredentism Ideologically-perverted linguistic scholarship Misrepresentation of Darwinism “Race” becomes primary marker of ethnic identity (Verheyen; Dow; Scheck)

Nationalism in Germany : 

Nationalism in Germany Germanization efforts under Hitler’s Third Reich: Separation of families “Suitable” children removed from racially “unacceptable” parents Ethnic inhabitants of occupied territories

Nationalism in Hungary : 

Nationalism in Hungary Magyar history: Finno-Ugric nomadic people Uralic language Carpathian Basin, 9th century AD Crossroads of Central Europe, therefore often overrun Region shared with numerous ethnic groups (Mésáros; Medgyes and Miklósy)

Nationalism in Hungary : 

Nationalism in Hungary Habsburg Hungary: Germanization  Revolution (1848)  Germanization  The Compromise of 1867: Dual Monarchy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Hungarian autonomy within the Habsburg Empire (Mésáros; Seton-Watson; Spira)

Nationalism in Hungary : 

Nationalism in Hungary Hungarian government efforts to: transform the multilingual Hungarian territory into a national Magyar state assure a totally Magyar character to Hungary Population demographic problem (Pâclisanu)

Nationalism in Hungary : 

Nationalism in Hungary Law of Equal Rights of the Nationalities (1868): Every citizen a Hungarian Official use of other languages recognized But Hungarian as official state language Seemingly enlightened liberal approach to integration, however. . . Vague, ambiguous provisions Neither enforceability nor sanctions (Seton-Watson; Edizioni Europa)

Nationalism in Hungary : 

Nationalism in Hungary “Magyarization” Of minority schools Count Apponyi’s School Law of 1907 Society for Name Magyarisation (1881) 1898 guide Name change registration / fees Geographical names (Seton-Watson; Pâclisanu; Edizioni Europa)

Conclusions : 

Conclusions Language as base element of ethnic identity for both Germans and Hungarians Policies toward linguistic and ethnic minorities: Germanization Unification of German state; sense of Aryan superiority Magyarization Secure viability of Magyar state, language, culture; sense of Magyar superiority Exacerbation of anti-German and anti-Magyar sentiments Disastrous effects upon territory & populations of both post-World War II

Bibliography : 

Bibliography Elizabeth Kirkley Best, “Aryanization: Lebensraum, Germanization, Judenrein,” Shoah Education Project (2003) [online]; available from http://www.shoaheducation.com/aryan.html. James R. Dow, “Germany,” in Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). Edizioni Europa, “Legislation on Fundamental Rights,” in How to Become a Hungarian: The Artificial Reproduction of a People (Rome: Edizioni Europa, 1977). Leonore Koschnirk and Agnete von Specht, “The Social Dimension – ‘Founders’ and ‘Enemies of the Empire’,” Bismarck – Prussia, Germany, and Europe, (Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin: 2000) [exhibition online]; available from http://www.dhm.de/ENGLISH/ausstellungen/bismarck/169.htm. Péter Medgyes and Katalin Miklósy, “The Language Situation in Hungary,” in Language Planning and Policy in Europe, Vol. 1: Hungary, Finland and Sweden, ed. Robert B. Kaplan and Richard B. Baldauf, Jr. (Tonawanda, New York: UTP, 2005). Július Mésáros, “Foreword,” in Old Hungary and the Coexistence of its Nations, ed. Martin C. Styan (Bratislava: Kubko Goral, 1997).

Bibliography : 

Bibliography Zenobius Pâclisanu, “The Austro-Hungarian Dualism,” in Hungary’s Struggle to Annihilate its National Minorities, Based on Secret Hungarian Documents, trans. Dora Kennedy (Miami Beach: Romanian Historical Studies, 1985). William Safran, “Nationalism,” in Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). Raffael Scheck, “The Bismarckian Empire, 1871-1890,” Germany and Europe, 1871-1945, (Colby College, Waterville, Maine: cited 16 Sep. 2006) [lecture notes online]; available from http://www.colby.edu/personal/r/rmscheck/GermanyB1.html. Robert William Seton-Watson, “The Revolution of 1848,” in Racial Problems in Hungary, reprint of 1908 edition (New York: Howard Fertig, 1972). Thomas Spira, “Hungary’s Minority Policy Before World War I,” in German-Hungarian Relations and the Swabian Problem, from Károlyi to Gömbös, 1919-1936 (Boulder: East European Quarterly, 1977). Dirk Verheyen, The German Question: A Cultural, Historical, and Geopolitical Exploration, 2nd ed. (Boulder: Westview Press, 1999).

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