The Rise of Nationalism in Germany and Hungary : The Rise of Nationalism in Germany and Hungary And Its Effects Upon Their Ethnic and Linguistic Minority Populations Laura Lea
SLAV 467, Fall 2006 Overview : Overview Concept of Nationalism
Its relationship to language
Rise of Nationalism in Germany
Policies toward linguistic & ethnic minorities
Rise of Nationalism in Hungary
Policies toward linguistic & ethnic minorities
Conclusions Nationalism : Nationalism Collective national consciousness, often based upon:
Common cultural heritage
Common history or memory
Common descent (or myth of such)
Common language (Safran) Nationalism : Nationalism 18th century: “Linguistic Nation”
Concept develops from Enlightenment thought
19th century: “Age of Nationalism”
“Linguistic Nation” concept is politicized, used in creation of nation-states (Safran) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany Pride in origins: Romantic Nationalism
Johann Gottfried Herder
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
1871: unified German Reich
Otto von Bismarck (Dow; Verheyen) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany Power consolidation by Otto von Bismarck:
Social and political reforms
Create sense of national loyalty:
Policies to further German
language and culture
Provide political stability:
“Kulturkampf” (Koschnirk and von Specht) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany “Germanization”
the enculturation of non-Germans into German living, society values and beliefs
Germanization efforts under Bismarck:
Appropriation of property (Best; Koschnirk and von Specht) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany Post-World War I:
Treaty of Versailles
Territory loss = growing irredentism
Ideologically-perverted linguistic scholarship
Misrepresentation of Darwinism
“Race” becomes primary marker of ethnic identity (Verheyen; Dow; Scheck) Nationalism in Germany : Nationalism in Germany Germanization efforts under Hitler’s Third Reich:
Separation of families
“Suitable” children removed from racially “unacceptable”
Ethnic inhabitants of
occupied territories Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary Magyar history:
Finno-Ugric nomadic people
Carpathian Basin, 9th century AD
Crossroads of Central Europe, therefore often overrun
Region shared with numerous ethnic groups (Mésáros; Medgyes and Miklósy) Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary Habsburg Hungary:
The Compromise of 1867:
Dual Monarchy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Hungarian autonomy within the Habsburg Empire (Mésáros; Seton-Watson; Spira) Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary Hungarian government efforts to:
transform the multilingual Hungarian territory into a national Magyar state
assure a totally Magyar character to Hungary
Population demographic problem (Pâclisanu) Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary Law of Equal Rights of the Nationalities (1868):
Every citizen a Hungarian
Official use of other languages recognized
But Hungarian as official state language
Seemingly enlightened liberal approach to integration, however. . .
Vague, ambiguous provisions
Neither enforceability nor sanctions (Seton-Watson; Edizioni Europa) Nationalism in Hungary : Nationalism in Hungary “Magyarization”
Of minority schools
Count Apponyi’s School Law of 1907
Society for Name Magyarisation (1881)
Name change registration / fees
Geographical names (Seton-Watson; Pâclisanu; Edizioni Europa) Conclusions : Conclusions Language as base element of ethnic identity for both Germans and Hungarians
Policies toward linguistic and ethnic minorities:
Unification of German state; sense of Aryan superiority
Secure viability of Magyar state, language, culture; sense of Magyar superiority
Exacerbation of anti-German and anti-Magyar sentiments
Disastrous effects upon territory & populations of both post-World War II Bibliography : Bibliography Elizabeth Kirkley Best, “Aryanization: Lebensraum, Germanization, Judenrein,” Shoah Education Project (2003) [online]; available from http://www.shoaheducation.com/aryan.html.
James R. Dow, “Germany,” in Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Edizioni Europa, “Legislation on Fundamental Rights,” in How to Become a Hungarian: The Artificial Reproduction of a People (Rome: Edizioni Europa, 1977).
Leonore Koschnirk and Agnete von Specht, “The Social Dimension – ‘Founders’ and ‘Enemies of the Empire’,” Bismarck – Prussia, Germany, and Europe, (Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin: 2000) [exhibition online]; available from http://www.dhm.de/ENGLISH/ausstellungen/bismarck/169.htm.
Péter Medgyes and Katalin Miklósy, “The Language Situation in Hungary,” in Language Planning and Policy in Europe, Vol. 1: Hungary, Finland and Sweden, ed. Robert B. Kaplan and Richard B. Baldauf, Jr. (Tonawanda, New York: UTP, 2005).
Július Mésáros, “Foreword,” in Old Hungary and the Coexistence of its Nations, ed. Martin C. Styan (Bratislava: Kubko Goral, 1997). Bibliography : Bibliography Zenobius Pâclisanu, “The Austro-Hungarian Dualism,” in Hungary’s Struggle to Annihilate its National Minorities, Based on Secret Hungarian Documents, trans. Dora Kennedy (Miami Beach: Romanian Historical Studies, 1985).
William Safran, “Nationalism,” in Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Raffael Scheck, “The Bismarckian Empire, 1871-1890,” Germany and Europe, 1871-1945, (Colby College, Waterville, Maine: cited 16 Sep. 2006) [lecture notes online]; available from http://www.colby.edu/personal/r/rmscheck/GermanyB1.html.
Robert William Seton-Watson, “The Revolution of 1848,” in Racial Problems in Hungary, reprint of 1908 edition (New York: Howard Fertig, 1972).
Thomas Spira, “Hungary’s Minority Policy Before World War I,” in German-Hungarian Relations and the Swabian Problem, from Károlyi to Gömbös, 1919-1936 (Boulder: East European Quarterly, 1977).
Dirk Verheyen, The German Question: A Cultural, Historical, and Geopolitical Exploration, 2nd ed. (Boulder: Westview Press, 1999).