nuclear power plant

Category: Education

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NUCLEAR FUEL Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy. The most common type of nuclear fuel is fissile elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a nuclear reactor The most common nuclear fuels are 235U and 239Pu. Not all nuclear fuels are used in fission chain reactions

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NUCLEAR FISSION When a neutron strikes an atom of uranium, the uranium splits into two lighter atoms and releases heat simultaneously. Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments

Nuclear fission : 

Nuclear fission Nuclear Power

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NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTIONS A chain reaction refers to a process in which neutrons released in fission produce an additional fission in at least one further nucleus. This nucleus in turn produces neutrons, and the process repeats. If the process is controlled it is used for nuclear power or if uncontrolled it is used for nuclear weapons



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NUCLEAR REACTOR A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb, in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an explotion.


TYPES OF NUCLEAR RECATOR The two main types of reactors in use today are the pressurized (PWR) and boiling water (BWR) reactors.

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Boiling Water Reactor

Pressurized water reactor : 

Pressurized water reactor

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CONTROL RODS Control rods made of a material that absorbs neutrons are inserted into the bundle using a mechanism that can rise or lower the control rods. The control rods essentially contain neutron absorbers like, boron, cadmium or indium.

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STEAM GENERATORS Steam generators are heat exchangers used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core. Either ordinary water or heavy water is used as the coolant.

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STEAM TURBINE A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical Various high-performance alloys and super alloys have been used for steam generator tubing.

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COOLANT PUMP The coolant pump pressurizes the coolant to pressures of the order of 155bar. The pressure of the coolant loop is maintained almost constant with the help of the pump and a pressurizer unit.

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FEED PUMP Steam coming out of the turbine, flows through the condenser for condensation and recirculated for the next cycle of operation. The feed pump circulates the condensed water in the working fluid loop.

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CONDENSER The objective of the condenser are to reduce the turbine exhaust pressure to increase the efficiency and to recover high quality feed water in the form of condensate & feed back it to the steam generator without any further treatment. Condenser is a device or unit which is used to condense vapor into liquid.

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COOLING TOWER Water circulating through the condenser is taken to the cooling tower for cooling and reuse Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere.

Nuclear Power Plants : 

Nuclear Power Plants Nuclear Power Comanche Peak Power Plant, Glen Rose, TX Goesgen, Beznau, Leibstadt (Switzerland). South Texas, Houston Ottawa, Canada

Power Plants In India : 

Power Plants In India Nuclear Power

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ADVANTAGES Nuclear power generation does emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of green house gases and therefore the contribution of nuclear power plants to global warming is therefore relatively little.

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This technology is readily available, it does not have to be developed first. It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant.

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DISADVANTAGES High risks: It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100% security. The energy source for nuclear energy is Uranium. Uranium is a scarce resource, its supply is estimated to last only for the next 30 to 60 years depending on the actual demand.

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DISADVANTAGES Nuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attacks.. During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive waste is produced, which in turn can be used for the production of nuclear weapons.

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