Clinical Trials

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Clinical research, Clinical trial, Phases of clinical trial

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Clinical Trials Progress Against Disease :

Clinical Trials Progress Against Disease Kirtikrushna

What Are Clinical Trials?:

What Are Clinical Trials? Research studies involving people Try to answer scientific questions and find better ways to prevent, diagnose, or treat disease

Why Are Clinical Trials Important?:

Why Are Clinical Trials Important? Clinical trials translate results of basic scientific research into better ways to prevent, diagnose, or treat disease The more people take part, the faster we can: - Answer critical research questions - Find better treatments and ways to prevent disease

Do Many People Take Part in Clinical Trials?:

Do Many People Take Part in Clinical Trials? Few people participate

What Are the Different Types of Clinical Trials?:

What Are the Different Types of Clinical Trials? Treatment Prevention Early detection/screening Diagnostic Quality of life/supportive care

Treatment Trials:

Treatment Trials What new treatments can help people with a particular disease? What is the most effective treatment for people with that disease?

Clinical Trial Phases:

Clinical Trial Phases Phase 1 trials How does the agent affect the human body? What dosage is safe?

Clinical Trial Phases:

Clinical Trial Phases Phase 2 trials Does the agent or intervention have an effect on the disease?

Clinical Trial Phases:

Clinical Trial Phases Phase 3 trials Is the new agent or intervention (or new use of a treatment) better than the standard? Participants have an equal chance to be assigned to one of two or more groups

Randomized Trials:

Randomized Trials Participants have an equal chance to be assigned to one of two or more groups: One gets the most widely accepted treatment (standard treatment) The other gets the new treatment being tested, which researchers hope and have reason to believe will be better than the standard treatment

Randomization:

Randomization

Why is Randomization Important?:

Why is Randomization Important? So all groups are as alike as possible Provides the best way to prove the effectiveness of a new agent or intervention

Treatment Trials:

Treatment Trials What new treatments can help people with a particular disease? What is the most of effective treatment for people with that disease?

Treatment Trials:

Treatment Trials Placebos are almost never used: Placebos are used only when no standard treatment exists Patients are told of this possibility before deciding to take part

Prevention Trials:

Prevention Trials Evaluate the effectiveness of ways to reduce the risk of a particular disease Enroll healthy people at high risk for developing that disease

Prevention Trials:

Prevention Trials Action studies (“doing something”) Agent studies (“taking something”)—also called “chemoprevention studies”

Chemoprevention Trials:

Chemoprevention Trials Phase 3 chemoprevention trials compare a promising new agent with either a: --Standard agent --Placebo

Clinical Trial Protocol:

Clinical Trial Protocol A recipe or blueprint Strict scientific guidelines: --Purpose of study --How many people will participate --Who is eligible to participate --How the study will be carried out --What information will be gathered about participants --Endpoints

Benefits of Participation:

Benefits of Participation Possible benefits: Patients will receive, at a minimum, the best standard treatment (if one exists) If the new treatment or intervention is proven to work, patients may be among the first to benefit Patients have a chance to help others and improve patient care

Risks of Participation:

Risks of Participation Possible risks: New treatments or interventions under study are not always better than, or even as good as, standard care Even if a new treatment has benefits, it may not work for every patient Health insurance and managed care providers do not always cover clinical trials

Patient Protection:

Patient Protection There have, unfortunately, been past abuses in patient protection Federal regulations ensure that people are told about the benefits, risks, and purpose of research before they agree to participate

How Are Patients’ Rights Protected?:

How Are Patients’ Rights Protected? Informed consent Scientific review Institutional review boards (IRBs) Data safety and monitoring boards (DSMBs)

How Are Patients’ Rights Protected?:

How Are Patients’ Rights Protected? Informed Consent: Purpose Procedures Potential risks and benefits Individual rights

How Are Patients’ Rights Protected?:

How Are Patients’ Rights Protected? Scientific review Institutional review boards (IRBs) are required by federal law for trials that are: --Federally funded --Subject to FDA regulation

How Are Patients’ Rights Protected?:

How Are Patients’ Rights Protected? Data and safety monitoring boards: Ensure that risks are minimized Ensure data integrity Stop a trial if safety concerns arise or objectives have been met

Why Do So Few People Participate in Clinical Trials?:

Why Do So Few People Participate in Clinical Trials? Sometimes patients: Don’t know about clinical trials Don’t have access to clinical trials May be afraid or suspicious of research Can’t afford to participate May not want to go against health care provider’s wishes

Why Do So Few People Participate in Clinical Trials?:

Why Do So Few People Participate in Clinical Trials? Health care providers might: Lack awareness of appropriate clinical trials Be unwilling to “lose control” of a person’s care Believe that standard therapy is best Be concerned that clinical trials add administrative burdens

Where to Find Clinical Trial Information:

Where to Find Clinical Trial Information Your health care provider National Library of Medicine www.ClinicalTrials.gov :

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