Physiology of Flowering

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The Control of Flowering Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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• How do plants keep track of the seasons of the year and the time of day? • Which environmental signals control flowering, and how are those signals perceived? • How are environmental signals transduced to bring about the developmental changes associated with flowering? Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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FLORAL MERISTEMS AND FLORAL ORGAN DEVELOPMENT Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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The Four Different Types of Floral Organs Are Initiated as Separate Whorls Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Three Types of Genes Regulate Floral Development 1. Floral organ identity genes 2. Cadastral genes 3. Meristem identity genes Five different genes are known to specify floral organ identity in Arabidopsis: APETALA1 (AP1), APETALA2 ( AP2), APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), and AGAMOUS ( AG) Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Three Types of Homeotic Genes Control Floral Organ Identity Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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• Activity of type A alone specifies sepals. • Activities of both A and B are required for the formation of petals. • Activities of B and C form stamens. • Activity of C alone specifies carpels. The ABC Model Explains the Determination of Floral Organ Identity Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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The ABC Model and the determination of Floral Organ Identity Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Phenotype of homeotic mutants Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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FLORAL EVOCATION: INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CUES size ( more important than age ) age (ex. bamboo); leaf number; growth conditions (conditions that favor growth promote the transition to adult phase; poor conditions, such as  water stress, lack of light, low temp,  prolong the juvenile phase ) Photoperiodism and vernalization Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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juvenile vegetative phase adult vegetative phase adult reproductive phase flowering THE SHOOT APEX AND PHASE CHANGES Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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FIGURE 24.10 Leaves of Acacia heterophylla, showing transitions from pinnately compound leaves (juvenile phase) to phyllodes (adult phase). Note that the previous phase is retained at the top of the leaf in the intermediate forms. Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Attainment of a sufficiently large size appears to be more important than the plant’s chronological age in determining the transition to the adult phase. Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Phase Changes Can Be Influenced by Nutrients, Gibberellins, and Other Chemical Signals Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Juvenile vegetative phase à transition factors (i.e., size, age) à induce hormonal or other changes à adult vegetative phase (competent) à environmental signal (i.e., photoperiod, temperature) à adult reproductive phase (determined) à flowering expressed Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Competence and Determination Are Two Stages in Floral Evocation Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Juvenile herbaceous meristems flower readily when grafted onto flowering adult plants, juvenile woody meristems generally do not. ? Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS: THE CLOCK WITHIN Noon Midnight Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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A typical circadian rhythm. The period is the time between comparable points in the repeating cycle; the phase is any point in the repeating cycle recognizable by its relationship with the rest of the cycle; the amplitude is the distance between peak and trough. Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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A circadian rhythm entrained to a 24 h light–dark (L–D) cycle and its reversion to the free-running period (26 h in this example) following transfer to continuous darkness. Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Suspension of a circadian rhythm in continuous bright light and the release or restarting of the rhythm following transfer to darkness Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Typical phase-shifting response to a light pulse given shortly after transfer to darkness. The rhythm is rephased (delayed) without its period being changed. Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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PHOTOPERIODISM: MONITORING DAY LENGTH Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Maryland Mammoth mutant of tobacco (right) compared to wild-type tobacco (left). Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Critical Photoperiod Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Photoinductive cycles Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Effect of Plant age on photoinductive cycle requirements Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Phytochrome Is the Primary Photoreceptor in Photoperiodism Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Plants Monitor Day Length by Measuring the Length of the Night Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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The time when a night break is given determines the flowering response. Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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The Circadian Clock Is Involved in Photoperiodic Timekeeping Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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The Leaf Is the Site of Perception of the Photoperiodic Stimulus Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Phytochrome Is the Primary Photoreceptor in Photoperiodism Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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The Floral Stimulus Is Transported via the Phloem Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari

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Kirti Vardhan, ACHF, NAU, Navsari