curious human behavior

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instinctive acts of human behavior decides our evolution and makes us different from other species...

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Curious Human Behavior :

Curious Human B ehavior By… K iran Hendre BNYS 3 rd year

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Why are we different?

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Panchakosha theory:- all the layers of existence are manifested only in human.

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Hiccups, cough, yawning, sneezing, laughter, crying, itching, goose bumps Tells about evolutionary origin of humans & how they are different from other species

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Hiccups

Hiccups :

Hiccups Synchondrous diaphragmatic flutter Involuntary contraction myoclonic jerk of diaphragm. Complex motor act:- diaphragm and inspiratory muscle make sudden and strong contraction Due to irritation of phrenic nerve, stomach, esophagus

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expiratory muscles are inhibited simultaneously glottis clamp shut (vocal cords) produces ‘Hic’ sound Inhibited by:- Elevated CO2 GABA receptor agonist CAUSES Cough Swallowing air excessively Rapid eating Intense emotion such as fear, anxiety, excitement, joy.. Carbonated beverages, alcohol, dry breads Opiate drugs laughing

Fetal hiccups:

Fetal hiccups Fetal intrauterine hiccups- part of fetal development ( myelination of phrenic nerve) Premature infants spend 2.5 % time of their life hiccuping , possibly gulping like amphibians, as their lungs are not yet fully formed

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YAWNING

Yawning :

Yawning A reflex consisting:- simultaneous inhalation and stretching of the eardrums followed by exhalation Tiredness Sleepiness Boredom Hunger By seeing others

Different theories of yawning:

Different theories of yawning Latest theory:- ‘Reset of the brain’- a method to stop current thoughts and following a yawn you can start using your cleaned brain. Excess CO2 in blood Body’s way of controlling brain:- by temperature and pressure change Yawning provides desire to stretch one’s muscles and refresh them(tongue, throat most often the muscles of speech, swallowing, breathing..). The need to stretch them and refresh them arises to circulate the lymph.

Continued…:

Continued… Certain chemicals/ neurotransmitters:- serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, nitric oxide increase the frequency of yawning And opiods - endorphin- decreases frequency of yawning It is contagious most of the times.

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SNEEZING

Sneezing :

Sneezing Semi autonomous convulsive expulsion of air through nose and mouth Foreign particle stimulates nasal mucosa Triggers release of histamine Irritates nerve cells in the nose Signal passes through trigeminal nerve

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Brainstem- controls epipharyngeal , intrinsic laryngeal and respiratory muscles- combined activity generates sneezing. Opening of nasal and oral cavities- powerful release of air and bioparticles Causes :- sudden change in temperature breeze of cold air, viral infection, sudden exposure to bright light( photic sneeze), full stomach, sexual arousal( due to crossing of nerves in ANS)

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LAUGHTER

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Whether you snort, cackle, chortle, or have a wild, weird little giggle, you have a "laugh print," a personal signature that's too, too you. Laughter is so basic to humans, we barely notice it -- unless it totally pleases or absolutely annoys us.

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“Laughter is a mechanism everyone has; laughter is part of universal human vocabulary. There are thousands of languages, hundreds of thousands of dialects, but everyone speaks laughter in pretty much the same way."

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Laughter is a physical reaction often audible contraction of diaphragm and other parts of respiratory system. Visible physical expression of number of positive emotional states.

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Limbic system Emotions Acting on hippocampus and amygdela Tickling Activation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex endorphin production Also triggers tegmentum near periaqueductal grey contains integrating mechanism for emotional expressions

Health benefits of laughter:

Health benefits of laughter Dilatation of inner lining of blood vessels increased blood flow NO2 Hypothalamus-release β endorphin vasodilatation Cardio protective benefits- inflammation and platelet activation

Continued… :

Continued… Reduces stress hormones- cortisols and epinephrine Endorphin release- mood elevation and also acts as a natural pain killer. Boosts up antibody producing cell and effectiveness of T cells

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CRYING

Crying :

Crying " a complex secretomotor phenomenon characterized by the shedding of tears from the lacrimal apparatus, without any irritation of the ocular structures“. A neuronal connection between the lacrimal gland and the areas of the brain involved with emotion has been established.

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stimulants – pain, verbal/nonverbal communication, memory, impulsive emotions Sympathetic nervous system arousal breathing- bronchodilation – opening of throat in order to get more air Done by expanding glottis But PNS always recuperates the functions of the body Includes swallowing- the process that needs closed glottis to prevent entry of food particle in larynx This fight creates a sensation that feels like a lump in throat

Continued…:

Continued… Crying is the method of self pity or self regard a way one comforts oneself. Joyful crying- recognition of glory, beauty and wonderfulness. Tears produced during emotional crying have a chemical composition which differs from other types of tears. They contain significantly greater quantities of the hormones prolactin , adrenocorticotropic hormone, leukoenkephalin and the elements potassium and manganese.

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ITCHING

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Stimulation to free nerve endings--- Usually at the junction of dermis and epidermis Pain, itching share common nerve pathway Stimulants- light touch, vibration, pricking, wool fibres Histamine release- stored in mast cells Incite more sensation of itching

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PILOERECTION

Goose bumps:

Goose bumps Piloerection - hypothalamic centers (through temp regulating centers, limbic system) sympathetic stimulation Causes erector pili muscles attached to the hair follicle to contract Bring the hair to upright stance In lower animals this leads to entrap a thick layer of insulator air next to the skin hence transfer of heat to the surrounding is greatly depressed

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Thank you…

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