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Technology for Swatchh Bharat, to make a New India free from pollutions with Clean Energy and Clean Drinking Water for common people


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Technology Intervention in CLEAN WATER & ENERGY significant for SWACHH BHARAT By S.Khuntia Inventor & Retired Chief Scientist CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar Email : 09 th September 2017 Presented in Seminar on “New India – We Resolve to Make” organized by MCL, Government of India at Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India


Health is Wealth. Good Health primarily depends upon Healthy food, Clean water, Clean Energy, Clean air and Clean Environment. “ Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ” is a revolution to bring cleanness in all aspects of life in India now. Present topic illustrates few Inventions of the author to bring cleanness in Drinking Water and Domestic Energy through Technological Interventions during his career in CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar (1978 to 2012) SWACHH BHARAT


Issue of Drinking water & Solution for common people : “TERAFIL” WATER PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY Invented by S. KHUNTIA


Pollution of river water : Major drinking water source


Contamination with excess minerals: Iron: Country highest in Orissa Fluoride: Significant Calcium & Magnesium: costal Orissa (hardness) Sodium (salinity): Costal Orissa Contamination of water sources by mine residues Ground water depletion by excess drawl of water


Threats: SURFACE WATER: (Dug well, Pond, River, Canal, etc) Turbidity, specially during rainy season Pathogen contamination (mostly by excreta of human & animals) Contaminated with industrial effluents, mine water, sewerage, fertilizer, pesticides, biocides, etc. in river and canal water. GROUND WATER: (Tube well & Bore well) Soluble iron & hardness Fluoride & arsenic contaminations Reduction of water level


QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER : As close as Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS). Drinking water should be clean, free from micro-organism, colour & odor less, minerals & dissolve solids within limit and free from toxic substances. CONTAMINANTS IN WATER: Suspended solids Pathogens Inorganic compounds Organic compounds


MAJOR CONTAMINANTS IN INDIAN SCENARIO : Suspended particles: Makes water cloudy ( Max. limit < 5 NTU ) Surface water : Turbid in rural sector Ground water : Clean Colloids- minutes particles within water, in conjunction with larger suspended particles, cause water turbidity. Inorganic compounds : Soluble Iron ( Max. limit <1.0 mg/lit ), Hardness & salinity in coastal areas Pathogens: Ground water- Free from pathogens Surface water- Contaminated with pathogens of fecal origin in many places


Bacteria : Cholera ( Vibrio), Typhoid (Salmonella) , Dysentery (Shigella) Size: 0.3 to 100 µm length, E. Coli : 3 µm length & 1 µm width Protozoa : Amoebic dysentery (Entamoeba), Cryptosporidium, Giardia , Size: 4 µm to 20 µm size Viruses : Hepatitis A, E, Gastroenteritis (Norwalk) Size: 0.02 to 0.3 µm seize Higher organisms (Helminths): Guinea worm, round worm, hookworm, tape worm etc. Size: 40 µm to 25mm size Turbidity is common measure of bacteria, since bacteria tends to stick to suspended particles Colloids: 0.1 µm to 0.001 µm size Water-borne Pathogens (Size of most of pathogens: 1 to 50 µm), µm = 1/1000 mm


Turbidity 2 NTU 30 NTU 70 NTU 130 NTU Maximum Turbidity Limit: 5 NTU (As per Indian Standard) Unit for measurement of Turbidity of water: NTU NTU: Nephelometric turbidity unit Note: Turbidity is common measure of bacteria; as bacteria tends to stick to suspended particles


WATER PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES : Freeing water from any kind of impurities it contains, such as suspended particles, micro-organisms, contaminants and dissolved solids contributes to hardness and alkalinity. Treatment train differ for different types of water; either Chemical or Physical or Combined method . Physical treatment: Mostly filtration processes. Different Technology for Domestic & Large size Water Treatment. Small size water purification technologies classified in :- (I) Cost effective water treatments (point-of-Use) (II) Advance water treatment methods


COST EFFECTIVE WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1. Coagulation, Flocculation and Sedimentation Coagulation refers to a process by which colloids begins to agglomerate, i.e. suspended particles collect to form larger particles that settle to bottom more quickly. Flocculation refers to the process in which larger suspended particles begin to clump together. Sedimentation is a process whereby suspended / larger particles are allowed settle to the bottom, and clean water can be removed from top layer without disturbing the sediments at bottom.


2. Chemical Disinfections : Chlorine remains most common chemical disinfectant, in form of solid calcium hypoclorite , Ca( OCl )2, bleaching powder, followed closely by iodine. Dose & effectiveness of chlorine for microorganism destruction dependant on turbidity & pH of water. Chlorine requirement increases eight folds while turbidity increases from 1 NTU to 10 NTU. Pre-treatment of water through filtration, coagulation / sedimentation is highly essential prior to chlorine use. Note:- Free chlorine residual in treated water should be 1 mg/l


Reverse Osmosis Ultrafiltration Nanofiltration Microfiltration Particle Separation 0.01 1 10 100 1000 0.1 0.001 Giardia Crypto- sporidium Asbestos Gelatin Colloidal silica Pesticide Herbicide Metal Ion Sugar Virus Dyes Latex Emulsion Tobacco Smoke Milled Flour Pollen RB Cell Hair Coal Dust Bacteria Yeast Cells Aqueous salts Atoms Paint pigments Beach sand Microns (1/1000 mm) 3. FILTRATION PROCESSES Scale of Magnitude for Filtration Processes TERAFIL


Bio-Sand Filter : Modified technology of slow sand filtration. Principle: Combination of biological and mechanical processes. Water flows slowly in to the filter media. Trapped organic materials & micro- organisms form a biological layer, called ‘ schmutzdecke ’, on top surface of fine sand layer. NOTE: Not easy for self maintenance & effective removal of bacteriological contamination.


Ceramic Water Filters : (i) White Ceramic Candle (ii) Red Clay Filter Disc ( TERAFIL ) Ceramic white candle : Hollow candle, top closed & bottom open, fixed on a holder. Candle is made with mixture of white kaolin clay, quartz, etc and charcoal powder as combustible. Sintered at high temperature to make porous. Pores are interconnected and capillary paths are created from outer surface to inner bore of candle. Size of pores : 0.3 to 6 micron Size of pores depends on construction materials, sintering temperature and combustible materials. White candle with Stainless Steel container


Ceramic White Candle WHITE CERAMIC CANDLE Average removal of bacteria: 85%


‘Terafil’- Red clay filtration media : TERAFIL – Burnt porous red clay media (disc), used for filtration and treatment of turbid raw water into clean drinking water. TERAFIL removes: 99% turbidity, 95-99% bacteria, 90-99% iron, colour , foul odor of water. TERAFIL- filter disc TERAFIL water filters


‘Terafil’ filtration media (disc) (contd.) Use of inexpensive local raw materials (pottery clay, sand, wood saw dust) Produced by traditional artisans and micro-entrepreneurs Minimal maintenance. Self operated & user’s friendly. Long life (5 years). Good quality product water Filtration media (disc) can be fitted with any container easily, even by users without training. Capacity: 1 to 75,000 LPD


‘Terafil’ Filter (contd.) Mixture of red clay (ordinary pottery clay), wood saw dust and sand is molded to desired shape, and sintered in a low cost furnace to form: TERAFIL. ? Sand particles form nuclei over which clay particles get embedded, leaving pores in between due to burning of wood particles during the process of sintering.


Production of TERAIL Media (Disc) Raw materials Mixing with water & pugging Moulding green Terafil Drying under sun Firing in Queen Kiln Sintered Terafil TERAFIL Disc 1 2 3 4 6 5 8 7 10 9


Sintering of TERAFIL water filtration disc in “Queen” coal fired kiln


Working Principle of Terafil Capillaries (0.2 μ m to 0.3 μ m opening) bridge large pores. Size of most of pathogens: 1 µm to 50 µm Hence most of m icro-organisms & turbid particles can not travel through the ultra-fine capillaries. Soluble iron and many heavy metals are adsorbed on top surface of Terafil and get precipitated in long run. The filtrate clogs top surface of Terafil over time and reduces flow rate. Periodic scrubbing of top surface of Terafil rejuvenates flow rate. Unlike white ceramic candle, core of Terafil never gets clogged and long life ( 5 years ) is obtained .


Cross section of TERAFIL NOTE: Pores are not connected each other and separated by thin clay membrane Pores inside Terafil separated by clay membrane Capillaries in pore wall: 0.2 - 0.3 µm size Wood saw dust creates pores


‘TERAFIL’ Filtration Virus Helminth egg Treated water Algae Protozoa Bacteria Clay membrane


Performance: Quality of product water:- For treatment of ground water : Turbidity : Within BIS limits Bacteria : Within BIS limits Iron : Within BIS limits pH : Within BIS limits Correction of pH for acidic raw water Reduction of Color & odor and improves taste. Cost of purification: Rs.2/- per ton product water Life of Terafil filtration disc: 5 years Life of Terafil stand-alone plant: 10 to 50 yr. For treatment of surface water : Mild chlorination (2mg/ ltr . bleaching power) may be required for highly contaminated raw water. Capacity: 1 lit/ hr to 10,00,000 lit/day (No scale-up limit) Waste management : Insoluble sludge Rejection of water: Nil Sludge removal: Top wash by water jets or scrubbing Operation : Without electricity & chemicals Maintenance : Almost NIL Present status : 10.0 million lit/day Terafil purified water Community Terafil water filters 5,000 LPD plant in Karnataka


Significant advantages: Free from clogging of core of Terafil media . Sediment deposits on exposed surface of Terafil and do not penetrate into pores during gravity filtration. Rate of filtration never reduced to zero. Saturated rate of filtration obtained during gravity filtration. Intermediate top wash for rejuvenation of filtration. No effect of acidity or alkalinity of raw water on Terafil . Stable performance & quality of product water throughout life of Terafil and high rate of filtration. No reject water. Long life; more than 5 years. Attention free operation without power. Removes dissolved iron & lime, turbidity and bacteria significantly during entire life of Terafil . Inexpensive raw materials reduce cost of Terafil . Mass production without much expertise. No scale-up limits; 1 to 10,00,000 lit/day at present. Green technology without use of any chemicals.


TERAFIL candles loaded with sediments in 10 yrs old live plant


Total coliform in raw water (treated with 2 mg/lit bleaching powder (30% Chlorine) Total coliform in filtered water (Raw water treated with 2 mg/lit bleaching powder prior to filtration) Total Coliform count in Input water: 2.8 – 3.5 X 10 6 CFU/ml Reduction through Terafil (without chemical treatment): 99.9% (Log 10 Reduction = 3) Reduction through Terafil ( Raw water treated with 2mg/lit Bleaching powder): 100% Treatment with small quantity bleaching powder for 100% removal of bacteria from highly contaminated raw water


Distribution of nano -silver particles on micro-platelets Impregnation of nano -silver in Terafil disc: By ARCI, Hyderabad ( Not yet commercialized ) Silver loading : 0.3 gm per 100 mm dia. Terafil candle Silver leaching in product water : 0.01 – 0.03 mg/ Ltr (WHO : <0.1 mg/ Ltr ) Removal of micro-organisms : 100 % ( ARCI - Hyderabad) Tentative life : 3 years Silver impregnated Impregnation of Nano-silver in TERAFIL candle


Performance of 1,500 sets Domestic Terafil Water filters (POU) Installed in few villages of Odisha, India (August 2009 – September 2011) pH Iron RW RW FW FW


1,000 LPD TERAFIL GRAVITY FILTER Location: Utkal University School, Bhubaneswar under JALMANI (Oct. 2009 – Oct 2011) Iron from raw water adsorbed on Terafil surface and some minerals of Terafil clay released to product water during filtration, resulting to increase of pH & TDS of product water. pH Iron TDS Turbidity FW FW FW RW RW RW RW FW


Removal of dissolved lime through TERAFIL candles without clogging its core at Bilashpur, Himachal Pradesh Field trail: DRDA, RD Dept, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh


Quality assurance: Benchmarking of Terafil candle: 1 . Crushing strength of 50 mm thick Terafil disc = 8.0 to 15.0 Kg/cm 2 2. Bulk density of kiln dry Terafil disc = 0.90 to 1.00 gm/cc 3. Total porosity of kiln dry Terafil candle (disc) = 35% to 45% 4. Rate of filtration of turbid free water through unused Terafil candle (disc) at 250 mm water head over Terafil disc: Q ava = 0.8 to 1.5 lit/ hr for 100 diameter Terafil disc Q ava = 4.0 to 8.0 lit/ hr for 220 diameter Terafil disc 5. Turbidity of product water = < 5 NTU (Desirable: 0.1-3 NTU) 6. Total iron in product water = < 0.3 mg/ Ltr . Increase of pH of product water = Around 1.0 99.9% bacteria reduction with normal raw water. Total Porosity: Volume of Pore water / Total volume of Terafil disc Total porosity & crushing strength are prime parameters for quality of Terafil . Crushing strength depends upon quality of raw materials & sintering .


Features of Terafil water purifiers : Gravity Filtration : Point - of - use: Domestic Terafil water filter (20 to 70 LPD) Community Terafil water filter : 500 to 10,00,000 LPD Frequency of cleaning of sludge : once in 15 to 30 days, depending on turbidity and iron content in raw water. Life: 10 to 50 yrs. ( for RCC chambers). Low capital investment: Rs.10/- to 12/- per liter capacity (for RCC chamber) Cost of purification: Rs.2/- for 1000 Ltr . (considering total cost of plant) Floor area: 6.25 sq.ft / 1000 LPD capacity Pressure filtration : On-line Terafil water filter: 100-200 lit/ hr (depending on turbidity) Community pressure filter: 500 to 5,000 lit/ hr Automatic cleaning of sludge. Life: 5 to 20 yrs (depending on materials of chambers) Low cost Cost of purification: Rs.2/- for 1000 Litr (considering total cost of plant) High capacity , compact and requires very less surface area. Material of chamber: Plastic for domestic filter; SS for Community filter


TERAFIL based water treatment systems: Domestic filter : Capacity: 50 lit/day (Gravity filtration) Unit cost: Rs.550/- (with plastic container) Life : 10 years 2. Ferro-cement Low cost filter : (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Unit cost: Rs.15,000 /- (piping extra) Life : More than 10 yrs (Feeding of raw water: piped supply preferable) Ferro-cement - Terafil Filter 3. Domestic on-line Filter : (Pressure filtration with Overhead tank) Capacity: 200 lit/hr Unit cost: Rs.2,000/- Life : More than 5 yrs (Auto-cleaning & require overhead tank for feeding raw water) Terafil with plastic container Water spray through nozzle


4. Community on-line Filter : (Pressure filtration with Stainless Steel Chamber) Capacity: 500 to 5000 lit/hr Unit cost: Rs. 50,000/- to Rs. 5,00,000/- Life : More than 50 yrs (Auto-cleaning & low pressure pump for feeding of raw water) 5. LLDPE Tank Terafil water purification plant : (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Tentative unit cost: Rs.15,000/- (piping extra) Life: more than 10 yrs (Feeding raw water: piped supply preferable) Community Terafil water purification plant : (Gravity filtration with RCC chambers) Capacity: 5000 to 10,00,000 LPD Unit cost: Rs. 50,000/- to Rs. 1.0 crore Life : More than 50 yrs (Semi-auto cleaning & low pressure pump for feeding of raw water) Community On-line water filter Community Terafil water filter with RCC Chamber Community Terafil water filter with LLDPE Chamber


Gravity operated TERAFIL water filters


Capacity: 50 lit/day Containers: Polypropylene (food grade plastic) Nos. of Terafil candles: 3 (100 mm diameter) Rate of filtration: 4 – 5 lit/hr Life of containers: 8 – 10 yrs. Life of Terafil candles: 3 – 5 yrs. Unit cost: Rs.550/- More than 3,00,000 units disseminated in J&K, Sikkim, Himachal, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand’ Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, UP, Odisha etc at present. Plastic Containers produced by CIPET-GOI centers at Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Ahmadabad & Luknow. Lid Top container Terafil Support ring Bottom container Tap DOMESTIC TERAFIL WATER FILTER More than 3,00,000 Sets of Terafil water filter being used at present Domestic ‘Terafil’ water filter ( Point-of-Use ):


TERAFIL candle with plastic holder can be fitted any container to make a water filter Present cost: Rs.40/-, life: 5 years


Terafil plastic holder Sintered Terafil disc. Terafil fitted with holder Domestic Terafil water filter


Terafil filter in slum and SC & ST houses in Orissa


Use of Terafil Water filter in primary schools


1,000 LPD TERAFIL water filter in schools under JALMANI More than 50, 000 units in operation in various states Community TERAFIL water filter in schools under JALMANI programme of Min. of DW&S, GOI


Iron contaminated raw water Terafil water filter with ferro-cement chambers in JALAMANI programme. in schools of Odisha, installed by RWS&S, Govt of Odisha


Capacity:600 liter, 10 year old Terafil Iron removal plant in Odisha


‘Terafil’ assisted Iron removal plant in villages Raw water in top chamber Use of Terafil Community filter through private efforts


Siba Charan Jena, Vill: Chanijanga, Charchhak, Dist-Puri Capacity:600 liter, Terafil Iron removal plant,


Community size ‘Terafil’ water filters in villages At Villages around Charchhak Contractor: Mr.P.C.Biswal, M/S Subash Supply agency, Charchhak Capacity:600 liter, Terafil Iron removal plants Mr.P.C.Biswal


More than 2000 units 5000 LPD Terafil plants installed in Karnataka


5,000 lit/day capacity Stand-alone TERAFIL water filters installed in villages of Karnataka for removal of excess iron from ground water


Collection of drinking water from Terafil plant in Karanatak


Construction of 5,000 lpd capacity TERAFIL water purifier in Karnataka Product water storage chamber TERAFIL water purifier


1,00,000 lit/day TERAFIL water purifier in Odisha


1,00,000 lit/day TERAFIL water purifier at Balipatana, Puri dist, Odisha




2.0 Lakh liter/ day capacity Terafil water purifier for community use in CRPF campus at Bhubaneswar


Use of TERAFIL water filter by jawans in CRPF – COBRA battalion at Koraput camp: Mao-insurgency affected area of Odisha


Pressure operated TERAFIL water filters


Domestic On-line Terafil water Filter (200 Ltr/hr capacity) Terafil disc Operates by overhead tank or pump Auto- cleaning of sediments from Terafil disc


Community On-line Terafil water filter (3000 lit/ hr capacity)


Dissemination: About 0.5 million units, in 50 lpd to 1,00,000 lpd capacity, Terafil water purifiers operating in many states of India. Propagated under many State & National Programme ; Bharat Nirman , Jalmani , Anganwadi , School, SC&ST ashram school etc. Being installed for centralized purification & supply product water through pipe lines to households. More than 10 million liters Terafil purified drinking water being supplied every day at present. Adopted by PHE depts , NGOs, private users in many states. 2.0 lakh lit/day Terafil plant commissioned in CRPF campus, Bhubaneswar on 22nd February 2014.


TERAFIL WATER FILTER launched by Hon’ble Chief Minister of Orissa on 10 th August 2007


TERAFIL WATER FILTER launched by Hon’ble Dy. Chief Minister of Tamilnadu on 25 th August 2010 at Chennai


Inspection of Terafil water filter by Hon’ble Chief Minister of Meghalaya at shillong


Inspection of Terafil water filter by Hon’ble Minister, PHE of J&K at Jammu


Inspection of IMMT technology by Hon’ble MP Sri Rahul Gandhi & Minister S&T, GOI Sri Kapil Sibal at Amethi, UP


Inauguration of domestic TERAFIL water filter by Sri Sri Ravisankar Ji, spiritual guru & founder of Art of Living


Hon,ble Minister, RD & MDWS, Govt of India, Sri Jairam Ramesh inspecting Terafil water filters at National Workshop of Drinking water


TERAFIL water filter in CSIR-800 programme: Science Congress at Bhubaneswar


Terafil water filters in schools of Dimapur, Nagaland


Terafil water filter for community use in Meghalaya


ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT METHODS Prominent Technologies :- Membrane Filtration : Micro filtration – 0.2 µm pore size Ultra filtration - 0.005 to 0.1 µm pore size Nano filtration – 0.001 to 0.005 µm pore size Membrane: polymer, ceramic, clay Reverse Osmosis : Polymer membrane, 0.001 µm pore , removes all contaminants, even minerals. Cartridge filtration : Fibers cartridge, suitable for contaminants less than 100 PPM


Ozone Treatment : Bacteria, virus, odour destroyed completely by oxidation. Safe & effective treatment. Ion-Exchange : Synthetic resins absorb certain inions or cations and replace them by counter-ions. Suitable for removal of hardness, iron, fluoride, nitrate, arsenic. UV – Radiation : Ultra violet rays of Sun light or UV- ray generator can kill many bacteria and stop spreading – by adequate expose. Distillation : Vaporization process, most of contaminants removed. Electrolysis : Electro dialysis method. Electrodes draw their counter ions through specific membranes, so contaminants are removed.


Contaminated water can be treated with 2 mg bleaching powder/ Lit raw water, followed by filtration through TERAFIL to obtain pathogen free clean & iron safe drinking water. Terafil improves pH & taste and reduces colour of product water. Suspended particles & microbes of diameter more than 200 nm can be removed by Terafil. Point-of-Use & Stand-Alone gravity operated TERAFIL water purifiers are sustainable solution for purification iron contaminated & turbid raw water. Online Terafil pressure filters are suitable for PHE supplied water in city & town (yet to be marketed). Terafil water purification is a green technology which operates without chemicals & electricity for a long period. Conclusion:


Clean Energy Objectives: Conserve biomass ( Trees, bush, agro-wastes etc ) Reduce consumption of firewood & fossil fuels. Reduce smoke & pollution in households & environment. Reduce health hazards of housewives & children. Reduce Greenhouse gas generation ( Carbon dioxide & Methane). Increase forest reserves Enhance Carbon sequestration (capture) by increasing number of trees in forests, rural & urban sector. Control Global warming Obtain oxygen rich and pollutants free clean air in urban & rural sectors for maintaining good health .


Different Rural Technologies Invented by the author during career in CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar Energy and Food processing : Multi-fuel cook stoves (portable & fixed- 06 designs ) (HARSHA & SK- Delux ) Improved fixed chulhas (with & without chimney-16 designs )(SK-1,2,3,4…) Multi-purpose biomass operated Bukhari (stove- cum -space heater) Biomass operated Oven for stoving of paints (heat painting). Low cost biomass fired Bakery Oven Biomass operated multi-purpose Drier (3 designs ). Coal / wood fired Downdraft Pottery Kiln (3 designs ). Biomass fired Cardamom dryer (spice drier ) Methane rich biogas generation from soiled vegetables/ Kitchen wastes. Agriculture: Power operated Paddy Threshers (3 designs). Paddy Thresher - cum - Winnower. Semi Automatic Pulse Thresher- cum- Winnower (2 designs). Fully automatic Pulse Thresher- cum- Winnower (2 designs) Multi-purpose Grain Winnower . Cont ….. S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 79


Animal feed, Brass & Bell metal and craft : Multi-purpose mincing machine Low cost Glazing of Terracotta (glass coating) Low cost coal fired pot furnace for melting Brass & Bell metal . Low cost coal fired pot furnace for Dhokra casting (lost wax casting) Drinking water : “ TERAFIL” red clay water purification media( disc/candle). “ TERAFIL” domestic gravity water Filters (Point of Use)( 3 designs). “TERAFIL” Stand-alone gravity water Filters (100-1,000 Lit/day ). “TERAFIL” Gravity water purification plants (1K to 100K Lit/day ). “TERAFIL ” On-line Pressure water purifiers (200 to 5,000 Lit/ Hr ) “TERAFIL ” Travel water filter. S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 80


About few successful technologies S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 81


Objectives Complete combustion of fuels. Multiple fuel (solid) burning capability. (iii) Reduction of smoke & pollution (CO/CO 2 < 0.04). (iv) High flame temperature (750 o C – 850 o C or more). (v) High thermal efficiency ( more than 25% ). (vi) 40-50% fuel saving over traditional stoves. (vii) Production and installation of fixed stoves by village artisans & rural youths. Type of Cook Stoves Portable cook stove (natural, forced & induced draft) Fixed chulha – with chimney - without chimney IMPROVED COOK-STOVES S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 82


Basic features of improved cook stoves Multi-fuel & Biomass Cook-stoves (Efficient burning of different solid fuels; wood, animal droppings, coal, briquettes, agro-waste etc ) Portable & fixed in position (With & without chimney ) Different cooking capacity (Family, medium & community sizes for cooking capacity from 5 – 500 persons) Chimney position & height (Short / long height, with / without bend, protrude through Wall / roof of kitchen) High acceptability among the users Simple design, easy fabrication- installation- maintenance, full satisfaction for different family size & society S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 83


MULTI-FUEL COOK STOVES Patent No. (India)166168/ 1986 S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 84


‘HARSHA’ MULTI-FUEL COOK-STOVES ( About 1.5 million stoves sold in India) S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 85 India Patent No: 166168 of 1986


Novelty Corrugated grate with ash scraper, perforated combustion chamber & air jacket helps to obtain complete combustion of fuels in two stages through flow of pre-heated primary & secondary air streams. Char of wood burns in the troughs of the corrugated grate and volatile part of the fuel burns in the perforated combustion chamber independently, results in complete combustion, clean & high temperature flame with reduced pollution & smoke. Continuous burning of char inside the grate helps for rapid thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) and self ignition of un-burnt fuels without air blowing. A short clean flame with less excess air at 800 – 850 o C is obtained due to continuous flow of multiple pre-heated air jets into the volatile matters through the perforated holes. S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 86


‘Harsha’ Multi-fuel stove family size, Patent No-166168 of 1986 wood Raw coal Cow dung S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 87


‘Harsha’ Multi-fuel Community stove ‘SK-Delux’ Multifuel community fixed stove S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 88


‘HARSHA’ Cookstove in National Standard of India: BIS 13152 : 2013 (After 28 yrs of Invention) S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 89


‘SK-Deluxe’ Multi-Fuel fixed Chulha (family size) WOOD DUNG CAKE RAW COAL S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 90


‘Jyostna’ Multi-fuel stove S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 91


Performance of Multi-fuel stoves Model Materials for construction Present cost (Rs) Thermal efficiency (%) CO/CO 2 TSP (Mg/M 3 ) Cooking capacity (person) As per BIS -- -- > 25% < 0.04 < 2 mg/M 3 -- Portable Stoves: Harsha Mild steel (MS) 600 30-43 0.007 1.8 8 Jyostna MS 550 30-42 0.0075 1.82 8 Harsha (community) MS 4000 30-51 0.0055 1.71 50-400 Fixed Stoves SK-Delux MS and clay 250 28-40 0.0065 1.75 8 SK-Delux (community) MS and clay 1250 30-42 0.0055 1.70 50-400 NOTE : Exhaust gas drawn from a hood, 350 mm from top of stove (with dilution) S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 92




FEATURES: Pottery-lined mud chulha with chimney Simplest in design & construction Vertical cylindrical combustion chamber connected with a chimney, through a ‘U’ type tunnel, at its top end. Inclined fuel feeding door provided at the lower zone of combustion chamber opposite to tunnel. Due to suction effect of chimney, a stream of air always strikes on the hip of char at the bottom of hearth for continuous vigorous burning of ember, in absence of grate. This helps thermal decomposition & ignition of un-burnt fuels. A part of the stream of air also helps for burning of volatile matters in a long flame. The flame glides on the bottom surface of cook pot, as well as high retention time of the flame helps to obtain high rate of heat transfer to the cook pot. 40-50% fuel saved over the traditional chulhas Complete combustion of fuels obtained S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 94


Pottery-lined fixed chulhas with chimney ‘SK-3’ Single pot stove with chimney ‘SK-1’ double pot stove with chimney S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 95


‘SK-3’ Pottery-lined fixed chulha with chimney (Nearly 2.5 million stoves sold in India) S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 96


‘SK-Agni’ Fixed Chulha (Without chimney) S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 97


Performance of fixed improved chulha Model Materials for construction Present cost (Rs) Thermal efficiency (%) CO/CO 2 Cooking capacity (person) SK-1 (double pot family size) Pottery, clay, and AC pipe 130 31 0.038 5-10 SK-1 (double pot community size) Brick, clay and AC pipe 350 30% 0.029 200-500 SK-3 (single pot family size) Pottery, clay, and AC pipe 100 – 125 26 0.035 8-30 SK-3 (short chimney with bend – family size) Pottery, clay, and AC pipe 100 25 0.035 8 SK-3 (single pot community size) Brick, clay and AC pipe 300 25% 0.034 200-400 SK-Agni (without chimney) MS and clay 60 29 0.030 8 Fuels : Biomass, agro wastes, dung cake NOTE : Exhaust gas drawn from chimney of Chulha (without dilution) S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 98


Low cost coal fired furnace for melting of brass & bell metal Coal fired pot furnace to melt brass, bell metal, copper, bronze, zinc etc. at 1000-1200 o C Reduces 75% fuel cost & pollution over traditional wood charcoal furnace Adopted in Orissa by metal artisans for brass & bell metal utensils, handicrafts, etc. Cost: Rs.5,000/- Capacity: 10 kg/hr Artisan Technology S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 99


Food Processing: Biomass operated Drier Efficient drying of Grains, pulses, vegetables, spices, fruits, noodles, vermicelli's, fish, meat, medicinal plants & herbs, tea leaf etc. in a clean environment using firewood (without electricity) Versatile in use Complete combustion of fuels, high heat release, indirect heating, faster drying, high thermal efficiency (80%) & pollution free device. Low cost & portable in use. Wood consumption = 3.3 kg/ hr Cost : Rs.25,000/- to 45,000/- as per size of the drier S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 100


PATENT NO: 215495 S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 101


. Dried spices & food products PATENT NO: 215495 S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 102


Drying of tea and other materials S.Khuntia, Ex-Ch.Sc. CSIR-IMMT 103

Cardamom drier (Spice drier):

Cardamom drier (Spice drier) Complete combustion of firewood and generate clean hot gas. Direct contact drying of large cardamom Reduces 80% fuels & drying period. Increases 45% essential oil & quality Unit cost = Rs.10,000/- Wood combustor Drying of large cardamom in Arunachal pradesh S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 104

Biomass operated low cost Bakery oven:

Biomass operated low cost Bakery oven Suitable for micro-enterprisers, self help groups for bread, cake etc. Reduces 70-80% fuel consumption, 60% baking cost and eliminates preheating unlike traditional ovens. Portable in use & high thermal efficiency. Unit cost : Rs.8,000/- Bakery Oven Bakery Oven in Meghalaya PATENT NO: 215495 S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 105


Coal / wood fired pottery kiln Downdraft kiln, built-in chimney, made of red brick & clay, permanent structure. Operates by raw coal or biomass Reduction of 60-70% fuel & sintering period, and 70% labour over traditional kilns 900 ° C to 1000°C temperature and negligible breakages of pottery. “Queen” pottery kiln S.Khuntia , Ex- Ch.Sc . CSIR-IMMT 106


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