Bacteria Removal Efficiency of TERAFIL Water Filter Candle-2017

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Study on bacteria removal efficiency of TERAFIL water filter with & without chemical treatment and Impregnation of nano -silver Inventor S.KHUNTIA Chief Scientist (Retired) CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar, India (Studies carried out in December 2010) September 2017

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Cycle No. RAW WATER TOTALCOLIFORMS 24 HOURS ( CFU/ML) FILTER WATER( Without chemical treatment ) TOTAL COLIFORMS 24 HOURS(CFU/ML ) % OF BACTERIA REDUCTION 17 th 2.78×10 6 5.4×10 2 99.9805 18 th 2.83×10 6 5.1×10 2 99.9819 19 th 2.88×10 6 5.4×10 2 99.9812 20 th 2.76×10 6 5.9×10 2 99.9786 21 st 2.81×10 6 5.7×10 2 99.9797 22 nd 2.83×10 6 4.9×10 2 99.9826 23 rd 2.79×10 6 5.1×10 2 99.9817 24 th 2.86×10 6 3.7×10 2 99.9870 25 th 2.81×10 6 5.9×10 2 99.9790 26 th 2.87×10 6 3.0×10 2 99.9895 27 th 2.79×10 6 3.8×10 2 99.9863 28 th 2.83×10 6 4.5×10 2 99.9840 29 th 2.86×10 6 4.1×10 2 99.9856 30 th 2.91×10 6 1.56×10 3 99.9463 31 st 2.89×10 6 8.9×10 2 99.9692 32 nd 2.87×10 6 8.8×10 2 99.9693 33 rd 2.86×10 6 8.6×10 2 99.9699 34 th 2.96×10 6 7.7×10 2 99.9739 35 th 2.99×10 6 8.2×10 2 99.9725 36th 2.91×10 6 7.6×10 2 99.9738 0 th (With sterile distilled water ) : 00 00 --- Bacteria Removal Efficiency of TERAFIL ( without chemical treatment ) ( Log Reduction Value – 3, LRV: 99.9 %)

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Expt. No. Quantity of Raw Water (sterile distilled water ) Quantity of highly contaminated water added to Raw water Total Coliforms after 24 hrs ( CFU/ML) Bacteria reduction through Terafil (%) RAW WATER FILTER WATER 01 10 Ltrs. 2ml 1200 NIL 100 02 10 Ltrs. 3ml 1550 NIL 100 03 10 Ltrs. 4ml 1760 NIL 100 04 10 Ltrs. 5ml 2120 NIL 100 05 10 Ltrs. 6ml 2460 NIL 100 06 10 Ltrs . 6ml 2510 NIL 100 07 10 Ltrs. 7ml 2970 44 98.5185 08 10 Ltrs. 7ml 3030 50 98.3498 09 10 Ltrs. 8ml 3460 150 95.6647 10 10 Ltrs. 8ml 3530 170 95.1841 11 10Ltrs. 9ml 3720 190 94.8924 Bacteria Removal Efficiency of TERAFIL with varying spike in raw water ( without chemical treatment )

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Total coliform in raw water (Spiked raw water treated with 2 mg/lit bleaching powder) Total coliform in filtered water ( Spiked raw water treated with 2 mg/lit bleaching powder prior to filtration ) Chlorine content in bleaching powder: 30% Total Coliform count in Input water: 2.8 – 3.5 X 10 6 CFU/ml Reduction through Terafil (without chemical treatment ): 99.9% (Log 10 Reduction = 3) Reduction through Terafil ( Raw water treated with 2mg/lit Bleaching powder) : 100% Bacteria Removal Efficiency of TERAFIL with chemical treated raw water

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Method followed for measurement of total coliform : Total Coliforms : The total coliform group includes the entire aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram negative, non-spore forming rod shaped bacteria, which ferment lactose with gas formation at 37 o C. Method Used: standard plate count : The standard plate count procedure provides a standardized means of determining the density of aerobic and facultative anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria in water. This is an empirical measurement because bacteria occur singly, in pairs, chains, clusters or packets and no single growth medium of all bacteria in a water sample. Medium Used: Mac Conkey Agar (MERCK- 61935505001730) for microbiology. (Mag. Date: April 2009, Expire. Date: March 2012), Germany. USP/IP and EP recommended medium for isolation and differentiation of Coliforms and enteric pathogens based on lactose fermentation. Test protocol followed was IS: 3025-(Part-10)1984. Period of Experiment at CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar: During October 2010.

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Pores (without direct connectivity) Cross section of Terafil Distribution of nano -silver particles on micro-platelets Impregnation of nano -silver in Terafil disc: By ARCI, Hyderabad ( Not yet commercialized ) Silver loading : 0.3 gm per 100 mm dia. Terafil candle Silver leaching in product water : 0.01 – 0.03 mg/ Ltr (WHO : <0.1 mg/ Ltr ) Removal of micro-organisms : 100 % ( ARCI - Hyd.) Capillaries ( connecting pores) 200 - 300 nm Silver impregnated

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Conclusion: TERAFIL red clay filtration candle can remove 99.9% of bacteria from raw water without chemical treatment or Nano-silver impregnation. TERAFIL red clay filtration candle can remove 100% of bacteria from the raw water which is treated with 2 mg/lit ordinary bleaching powder(30% chlorine) prior to filtration. TERAFIL red clay filtration candle impregnated with Nano-silver can remove 100% bacteria from raw water. Silver leaching in product water ( 0.01 – 0.03 mg/ Ltr ) was less than WHO l imits (WHO : <0.1 mg/ Ltr ). Bacteria removal efficiency of TERAFIL candle depends upon on its quality, Nano-silver solution, silver concentration and its impregnation process. Raw water treated with minimal quantity( 2 mg/lit) of bleaching powder followed by filtration through Terafil red clay candle assure 100% removal of bacteria in product water: A cheapest & best user’s friendly process.

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Acknowledgements: The author is highly thankful to CSIR & IMMT, Bhubaneswar for providing necessary facilities, funding and supports for carryout studies on bacteria removal efficiency in IMMT, Bhubaneswar during 2010. The author is grateful to the Director & concerned scientists of ARCI, Hyderabad for developing the process of impregnation of Nano-silver into Terafil candle. The author is specially thankful to the following Technical staff and project staff who had contributed significantly for the studies in CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar during 2010 ( Mr. Pradeep Ku. Dash, PA-II (Microbiology) Miss. Rinky Dandapat , PA-II (Microbiology) Mr. N. C . Mohanta , PA-II (Chemistry) Mr. S. Mohanty , Sr.Technician Mr. S. K.Shanti , Technical Assistant Mr. R. K. Mandal, Technical Assistant

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