TERAFIL water filter-Invented by S.KHUNTIA-MAY 2015

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"TERAFIL" is the trade name of a natural red clay based water purification filter media (candle/ disc) for safe drinking water. It has been invented by the author in CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar (formerly RRL), India during the year 1996, and has been disseminated extensively throughout India as a green & safe technology for purification of drinking water at a minimal cost. It operates without power & chemicals. CSIR has licensed TERAFIL in all parts of India to a large numbers of entrepreneurs for large scale production & marketing through training & guidance of the author for mitigation of drinking water problem in India. Poorest of poor can afford this technology for harvesting drinking water without help of experts/ technical supports, which achieved sustainability.

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Presentation Transcript

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LOW COST ‘TERAFIL’ WATER PURIFICATION – A GREEN TECHNOLOGY Invented by S.Khuntia Retired Chief Scientist of CSIR, Govt of India (council of Scientific & Industrial Research) R&D Consultant E-Mail ID: khuntias@gmail.com Cell No: +919437012679 Contact at : Ananda Bhawan , West bank of Bindusagar , Old Town, BHUBANESWAR-751002, INDIA TERAFIL : – Burnt & porous natural red clay filter media used for purification of water : A trade name given by the author . May 2015

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Innovation for masses: ‘TERAFIL’ water purification systems TERAFIL media (disc) : Porous terracotta disc, made from red clay (pottery clay), sand & wood saw dust Principles : Pores in Terafil, created by saw dusts, separated by ultra-fine clay walls, but connected each other by capillaries (0.2 to 0.3 µm). Sediments, iron, bacteria removed on top surface of Terafil disc through filtration without clogging its core, resulting 5 yrs life of Terafil disc TERAFIL water filter disc Iron sludge Terafil production Silver impregnated Low cost device for removal of excess iron from water along with turbidity and bacteria without electricity & chemicals. Domestic filer 5,000 LPD plant in Karnataka

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‘ TERAFIL ’- Red clay filtration media (disc) TERAFIL – Burnt porous red clay media (disc), used for filtration and treatment of both surface & ground raw water into clean drinking water. For treatment of ground water :- Quality of product water:- Turbidity : Within BIS limits Bacteria : Within BIS limits Iron : Within BIS limits pH : Within BIS limits Color & odor reduces drastically Cost of product water: Rs.2/- per ton Life of Terafil filtration disc: 5 years Life of Terafil stand-alone plant: 10 yr. For treatment of surface water :- Mild chlorination (2mg/ltr. product water) necessary to get pathogen free product water. Capacity : 1 lit/hr to 1,00,000 lit/day. Gravity & Pressure filtration TERAFIL- water filter disc TERAFIL water filters

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Working Principle of Terafil Capillaries ( 0.2 μ m to 0.3 μ m opening ) bridge large pores. Size of most of pathogens: 1 µm to 50 µm Most of micro-organisms & turbid particles can not travel through the ultra-fine capillaries. Soluble iron and some heavy metals are adsorbed on top surface of Terafil and get precipitated in long run. Filtrates clog top surface of Terafil over time and reduces flow rate. Periodic scrubbing of top surface of Terafil rejuvenates flow rate. Unlike white ceramic candle, core of Terafil never gets clogged and long life ( 5 years ) is obtained .

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Hypothesis for removal of soluble iron from raw water during filtration through TERAFIL clay media

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Hypothesis for removal of soluble iron from raw water by filtration through TERAFIL media: Mechanism - A : Clay minerals have a negative surface charge & its magnitude is relatively constant. Reactive surface of clay particles interacts with ions & molecules in aqueous solution. Interaction between negatively charged clay particle surface and cations in top layer pore water generate an electric double layer. Negatively charged surface of TERAFIL and electrostatic attraction for cations forms double layers, which is an important phenomenon for Ion exchange. Therefore iron from raw water is removed, and some other minerals from Terafil clay is released to product water, which results in increase of pH & TDS of product water. Mechanism – B : Retention of metal ions (particularly iron) on clay surface is associated with specific adsorption. Terafil clay has strong affinity for adsorption of iron. Precipitation of iron oxide/ hydroxide occurs on top surface of Terafil disc. Many sorption mechanism & precipitation all results removal & release of metals from water, which is very difficult to distinguish.

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Terafil based water purification Technology : Gravity Filtration : Point of use: Domestic Terafil water filter (20 to 70 LPD) Community Terafil water filter: 100 to 1,00,000 LPD Removal of sludge deposit: manual scrubbing or water sprayer Frequency of cleaning: once in 15 to 30 days, depending on turbidity of raw water. Life: 10 to 50 yrs. Low cost Rs.2/- per ton product water Pressure filtration : On-line Terafil water filter: 100-200 lit/ hr (depending on turbidity) Community pressure filter: 1000 to 10,000 lit/ hr Auto- cleaning & removal of sludge. Life: 5 to 20 yrs (depending on materials of chambers) Low cost Less than Rs.2/- per ton product water

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TERAFIL based water treatment systems: Domestic filter : Capacity: 50 lit/day (Gravity filtration) Unit cost: Rs.600/- Life : More than 5 yrs 2. Ferro-cement Low cost filter : (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Unit cost: Rs.15,000 /- (piping extra) Life : More than 10 yrs (Feeding raw water: piped supply preferable) Ferro-cement - Terafil Filter 3. On-line Filter : (Pressure filtration with Overhead tank) Capacity: 200 lit/hr Life : More than 5 yrs (Auto-cleaning & require overhead tank for feeding raw water) Terafil with plastic container Water spray through nozzle

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5,000 Ltr/day Terafil plant in Karnataka by PRED, Govt of Karnataka 4. LLDPE Tank Terafil water purification plant : (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Tentative unit cost: Rs.20,000/- (piping extra) Life: more than 10 yrs (Feeding raw water: piped supply preferable) 5. Top Chamber: LLDPE, Bottom chamber: RCC/ brick chamber: (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Tentative unit cost: Rs.18,000/- (piping extra) Life: more than 10 yrs (Feeding raw water: piped supply preferable)

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Inauguration of 25,000 Lit/ day Terafil water purification plant by Director General of CSIR at IMMT, Bhubaneswar during March 2009 large capacity Terafil water purification plant for community applications ( 5,000 to 1,00,000 lit/day)

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1,00,000 lit/day TERAFIL water purifier at Balipatana, Puri dist, Odisha Raw water top chamber

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2,00,000 liter/ day (0.2MLD) Terafil community water filter at GC-CRPF, Bhubaneswar, Inaugurated on 22 nd February 2014. Dripping of Filter water in bottom chamber

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Technical parameters of the 0.2 MLD plant: It is a gravity operated water filter; comprises of two tier RCC chambers, one placed above another. The top chamber holds raw water, while filtered water is collected in bottom chamber and flows into the existing under ground sump for storage. A battery of Terafil - red clay filtration candles are permanently fixed on the bottom slab of top chamber for filtration of raw water. The filter water comes out through the outlets of Terafil candles. Continuous filtration process (24X7X365). No power & chemicals required for purification. No sludge/ waste treatment required. Product water(filtered water) within BIS limits. Tentative life of plant: 50 years Tentative life of Terafil candle: more than five years. Tentative cost of purification (considering capital investment): within Rs.2/- for 1000 liter filter water. Cleaning of sediments: Top wash of Terafil candles by water jet sprayer; once in three month- depending upon turbidity & iron in raw water. Insoluble & non-reactive sludge (waste)

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On-line Terafil water filter (5000 lit/ hr capacity)

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Hon’ble Minister, S&T, Govt of India, Sri Bilash Rao Deshmukh inspecting operation of Terafil water purification systems

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Hon,ble Minister, RD & MDWS, Govt of India, Sri Jairam Ramesh inspecting Terafil water filters at National Workshop of Drinking water

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Secretary, Advisors, Chief Engineers of Min. of Drinking Water, Govt of India inspecting Terafil water filters

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Hon’ble Minister S&T, Secretary DST, DG CSIR & other dignitaries inspecting Terafil water purification systems in Science Congress at Bhubaneswar

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Terafil overhead water purification plant in Meghalaya

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Domestic Terafil water filter in basti and SC & ST houses in Orissa

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Use of Terafil Water filter in primary schools in of Orissa

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Circular of Department of Drinking Water Supply (DDWS), Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India for installation of 1,000 liter/day capacity TERAFIL water filters in schools all over the country under ‘JALMANI’ programme of Govt. of India Supply of drinking water to School children under ‘JALAMANI’

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11,950 sets 5000 lit/day Terafil water purification plants being installed in Karnataka Please see link for video in YouTube: www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xx3i0nfhdSc

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TERAFIL water filter in JALAMANI Programme of Govt. of India (for supply of drinking water to school children)

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Terafil filter in Blind School at Bhubaneswar

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Construction of 1000 liter/ day capacity Community Terafil water purifiers with pre-fabricated ferro-cement rings in schools under JALMANI National Drinking Water Programme of Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation(MDWS), Govt. of India

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Stage-1 (construction of bottom chamber) Training of high level delegates of Arunachal Pradesh on construction of 1,000 LPD Terafil water filter with pre-fabricated RCC rings at IMMT-Bhubaneswar Construction of bottom chamber for holding filter water

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Middle plate for holding TERAFIL disc: Fixing on bottom chamber Construction of Top Chamber over middle plate Stage- 2 & 3

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Fixing of Terafil disc in grooves of Middle plate with cement-sand mixture (1:2 ratio) and cement slurry well after seasoning of the total chamber with water for seven days Sealing Terafil disc rigidly with Cement-Sand mixture (1:2 ratio) with ramming Pouring cement – water slurry around Terafil disc for complete sealing Stage - 4

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Use of Community Terafil water filter by blind students at Bhubaneswar

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Inside top chamber of Community TERAFIL water filter

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Iron contaminated raw water Success story of Terafil water filter with ferro-cement chambers in JALAMANI programme. in schools of Orissa

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1000 LPD TERAFIL plants in schools of Garo Hills of Meghalaya (Functioning successfully since last two years) NOTE: Please see link: http://youtu.be/MJO4rLxRj3k for video in YouTube on TERAFIL filter in JALMANI, prepared by PHE Dept, Govt of Meghalaya

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Performance of TERAFIL water filters

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10,000 LPD TERAFIL GRAVITY FILTER Location: CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar (Sept. 2010 – Oct 2011) Iron from raw water adsorbed on Terafil surface and some minerals of Terafil clay released to product water during filtration, resulting to increase of pH & TDS of product water. pH Iron Turbidity TDS RW RW RW FW FW FW RW FW

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1,000 LPD TERAFIL GRAVITY FILTER Location: Utkal University School, Bhubaneswar under JALMANI (Oct. 2009 – Oct 2011) Iron from raw water adsorbed on Terafil surface and some minerals of Terafil clay released to product water during filtration, resulting to increase of pH & TDS of product water. pH Iron TDS Turbidity FW FW FW RW RW RW RW FW

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Performance of 1,500 sets Domestic Terafil Water filters Installed in few villages of Odisha (August 2009 – September 2011) pH Iron RW RW FW FW

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Performance of domestic online Terafil water filters in CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar Campus( Aug 2009 to Aug. 2011) Iron pH TDS Turbidity FW RW RW RW RW FW FW FW

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Inspection of Terafil water filter by Hon’ble Minister, PHE Of J&K at Jammu

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For business please contact : S.KHUNTIA, Scientist Inventor (Retired Chief Scientist of CSIR, Government of India) Address for Communication : ANANDA BHAWAN WEST BANK OF BINDUSAGAR, OLD TOWN BHUBANESWAR-751002, ODISHA, INDIA Email ID: khuntias@gmail.com , khuntias@yahoo.com Cell No- +919437012679 Scope : Custom made design of Terafil water purifiers, quality control & supply of Terafil filtration candles of different capacity & needs of the users on consultancy basis.

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Thank you Save drinking water

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