TERAFIL water purifiers-S.KHUNTIA

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TERAFIL, trade name of a red clay based water purification low cost media, invented by S.Khuntia, Ex-Chief Scientist of CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar, India. PPT on success of development of various TERAFIL based water purifiers for domestic & community uses in India was presented in the International seminar, Clean Water forum of IURMS ICA-2013 in IISc, Bangalore.

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Natural red clay media for purification of drinking water in domestic and community water supply S.Khuntia Chief Scientist (Retired) (Inventor of TERAFIL Technology) Ex- CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar E-Mail ID: khuntias@gmail.com Mob: 09437012679 INDIA Presented in International Union of Materials Research Societies – International Conference in Asia – 2013 (IUMRS-ICA-2013) at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, Clean Water Forum on 17 th December 2013

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Basic necessity : Drinking water must be free from natural impurities, pollutants and microbes. Most popular purification methods: Filtration including Reverse Osmosis Followed by other physical, chemical and electrical treatments to make water extremely clean & safe. Filtration medias: Natural, organic & inorganic materials. Sand, pebble, ceramic etc are most commonly used in developing countries.

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Reverse Osmosis Ultrafiltration Nanofiltration Microfiltration Particle Separation 0.01 1 10 100 1000 0.1 0.001 Giardia Crypto- sporidium Asbestos Gelatin Colloidal silica Pesticide Herbicide Metal Ion Sugar Virus Dyes Latex Emulsion Tobacco Smoke Milled Flour Pollen RB Cell Hair Coal Dust Bacteria Yeast Cells Aqueous salts Atoms Paint pigments Beach sand Microns (1/1000 mm) FILTRATION PROCESSES: Scale of Magnitude for Filtration Processes TERAFIL

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Scale of purification: ( based on cost, performance & life) Sand filtration followed by chemical treatments. ‘ Terafil ’ Terracotta water filters. Bio-sand water filter. Ceramic candle water filters. Polymer membrane ultrafiltration water filters. Rice husk ash concrete candle water filter. Ion-exchange based water purifiers. Ceramic Membrane based water purifier. Reverse Osmosis based water filters.

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Innovation for masses: ‘TERAFIL’ water purification systems TERAFIL media : Porous terracotta disc, made from a mixture of red clay (pottery clay), sand & wood saw dust. Principles : Burnt out saw dusts in TERAFIL create cavities (large size pores up to 1.0 mm diameter) during sintering. The pores are separated from each other by ultra-fine boundary clay walls (wall thickness: 50-100 micron). A large numbers of capillaries (diameter: 200 –300 nm) are also created in the ultrafine clay walls, which connect the pores. During filtration in TERAFIL, clean water travel through capillaries & pores, leaving behind sediments, bacteria etc(size > 200nm) on top surface of TERAFIL disc. Size of most of pathogens: 1,000 – 50,000 nm). TERAFIL water filter disc Domestic filer Wood saw dusts create pores SEM picture of partially burnt TERAFIL 50-100 µm

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Cross section of TERAFIL Pores inside Terafil Capillaries in pore wall: 0.2 - 0.3 µm size Wood saw dust creates pores

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Production of TERAIL Media (Disc) Raw materials Mixing with water & pugging Moulding green Terafil Drying under sun Firing in Queen Kiln Sintered Terafil TERAFIL Disc 1 2 3 4 6 5 8 7 10 9

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LOADING LOADING GREEN TERAFILS SINTERED (BURNT) TERAFILS FIRING WITH WOOD/ COAL

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Sintering of TERAFIL water filtration disc in “Queen” coal fired kiln

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Performance: Quality of product water:- For treatment of ground water : Turbidity : Within BIS limits Bacteria : Within BIS limits Iron : Within BIS limits pH : Within BIS limits Correction of pH for acidic raw water Reduction of Color & odor and improves taste. Cost of purification: Rs.2/- per ton product water Life of Terafil filtration disc: 5 years Life of Terafil stand-alone plant: 10 to 50 yr. For treatment of surface water : Mild chlorination (2mg/ ltr . bleaching power) may be required for highly contaminated raw water. Capacity: 1 lit/ hr to 10,00,000 lit/day (No scale-up limit) Waste management : Insoluble sludge Rejection of water: Nil Sludge removal: Top wash by water jets or scrubbing Operation : Without electricity & chemicals Maintenance : Almost NIL Present status : 5.0 million lit/day Terafil purified water Community Terafil water filters 5,000 LPD plant in Karnataka

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Significant advantages: Cor e of Terafil never gets clogged & stops filtration. Sediments deposit on exposed surface of Terafil and do not penetrate into pores during gravity filtration . Saturated rate of filtration obtained during gravity filtration. Intermediate top wash for rejuvenation of filtration. No effect of acidic/ alkaline water on Terafil . High rate of filtration. Performance/ quality of product water never alter with period of use. Long life; more than 5 years. Inexpensive raw materials. Can be produced & utilized in most of places without expertise. No scale-up limits. Removes dissolved iron & lime, besides turbidity & bacteria, during entire life of Terafil .

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TERAFIL candles loaded with sediments in 10 yrs old live plant

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Rate of filtration without cleaning of Terafil candles Turbidity of Input water: 30 - 40 NTU Turbidity of output water: < 0.13 NTU Saturated rate of filtration (SRF)

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Rate of filtration without cleaning of Terafil candles Turbidity of Input water: 100- 130 NTU Turbidity of output water: < 0.13 NTU Saturated rate of filtration (SRF)

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Quality Assurance: Parameters control quality of Terafil : Higher clay-silt fraction ( about 80%) in red clay creates good quality clay membrane and maintains strength. Proportion & particle size of raw materials and vitrification (sintering) control quality of Terafil disc. Solid state sintering at 800 o C is highly essential for maintaining porosity of Terafil media. Low temperature active fluxing oxides ( Na 2 O, K 2 O , Fe 2 O 3 ) in clay control sintering temperature. Typical composition of red clay: SiO 2 = 41%, Al 2 O 3 = 32%, Na 2 O = 0.65%, K 2 O = 1.8%, Fe 2 O 3 = 6.5% Particle size: <53 Micron = 97% Total porosity of Terafil = 35% to 45% (Volume of pore water / volume of Terafil disc) Crushing strength of 50mm thick Terafil disc: 8.0 to 15.0 Kg/cm 2

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Benchmarking: 1 . Crushing strength of 50 mm thick Terafil disc = 8.0 to 15.0 Kg/cm 2 2. Bulk density of kiln dry Terafil disc = 0.90 to 1.00 gm/cc 3. Total porosity of kiln dry Terafil candle (disc) = 35% to 45% 4. Rate of filtration of turbid free water through unused Terafil candle (disc) at 250 mm water head over Terafil disc: Q ava = 0.8 to 1.5 lit/ hr for 100 diameter Terafil disc Q ava = 4.0 to 8.0 lit/ hr for 220 diameter Terafil disc 5. Turbidity of product water = < 5 NTU (Desirable: 0.1-3 NTU) 6. Total iron in product water = < 0.3 mg/ Ltr . Increase of pH of product water = Around 1.0 99.9% bacteria reduction with normal raw water. Total Porosity: Volume of Pore water / Total volume of Terafil disc Total porosity & crushing strength are prime parameters for quality of Terafil . Crushing strength depends upon quality of raw materials & sintering .

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Features of Terafil water purifiers : Gravity Filtration : Point - of - use: Domestic Terafil water filter (20 to 70 LPD) Community Terafil water filter : 500 to 10,00,000 LPD Frequency of cleaning of sludge : once in 15 to 30 days, depending on turbidity and iron content in raw water. Life: 10 to 50 yrs. ( for RCC chambers). Low capital investment: Rs.10/- to 12/- per liter capacity (for RCC chamber) Cost of purification: Rs.2/- for 1000 Litr (considering total cost of plant) Floor area: 6.25 sq.ft / 1000 LPD capacity Pressure filtration : On-line Terafil water filter: 100-200 lit/ hr (depending on turbidity) Community pressure filter: 500 to 5,000 lit/ hr Automatic cleaning of sludge. Life: 5 to 20 yrs (depending on materials of chambers) Low cost Cost of purification: Rs.2/- for 1000 Litr (considering total cost of plant) High capacity , compact and requires very less surface area. Material of chamber: Plastic for domestic filter; SS for Community filter Note: 1.0 US Dollar = 63 Indian Rupee as on 17 th December 2013

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TERAFIL based water treatment systems: Domestic filter : Capacity: 50 lit/day (Gravity filtration) Unit cost: Rs.500/- Life : 10 years 2. Ferro-cement Low cost filter : (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Unit cost: Rs.15,000 /- (piping extra) Life : More than 10 yrs (Feeding of raw water: piped supply preferable) Ferro-cement - Terafil Filter 3. Domestic on-line Filter : (Pressure filtration with Overhead tank) Capacity: 200 lit/hr Unit cost: Rs.2,000/- Life : More than 5 yrs (Auto-cleaning & require overhead tank for feeding raw water) Terafil with plastic container Water spray through nozzle

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4. Community on-line Filter : (Pressure filtration with Stainless Steel Chamber) Capacity: 500 to 5000 lit/hr Unit cost: Rs. 50,000/- to Rs. 5,00,000/- Life : More than 50 yrs (Auto-cleaning & low pressure pump for feeding of raw water) 5. LLDPE Tank Terafil water purification plant : (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Tentative unit cost: Rs.15,000/- (piping extra) Life: more than 10 yrs (Feeding raw water: piped supply preferable) Community Terafil water purification plant : (Gravity filtration with RCC chambers) Capacity: 5000 to 1,00,000 LPD Unit cost: Rs. 50,000/- to Rs. 10,00,000/- Life : More than 50 yrs (Semi-auto cleaning & low pressure pump for feeding of raw water) Community On-line water filter Community Terafil water filter with LLDPE Chamber Community Terafil water filter with LLDPE Chamber

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Dissemination: More than 2.5 lakh units, in 50 lpd to 1,00,000 lpd capacity, Terafil water purifiers operating in many states of India. Propagated under many State & National Programme ; Bharat Nirman , Jalmani , Anganwadi , School, SC&ST ashram school etc. Being installed for centralized purification & supply product water through pipe lines to households. About 5.0 million liters Terafil purified drinking water being supplied every day now. Adopted by PHE depts , NGOs, private users in many states. 2.0 lakh lpd Terafil plant will be commissioned shortly in CRPF campus, Bhubaneswar.

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Capacity: 50 lit/day Containers: Polypropylene (food grade plastic) Nos. of Terafil candles: 3 (100 mm diameter) Rate of filtration: 4 – 5 lit/hr Life of containers: 8 – 10 yrs. Life of Terafil candles: 3 – 5 yrs. Unit cost: Rs.500/- More than 2,00,000 units disseminated in J&K, Sikkim, Himachal, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand’ Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, UP, Odisha etc at present. Plastic Containers produced by CIPET-GOI centers at Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Ahmadabad & Luknow. Lid Top container Terafil Support ring Bottom container Tap DOMESTIC TERAFIL WATER FILTER More than 2,00,000 Sets of Terafil water filter being used at present Domestic ‘Terafil’ water filter ( Point-of-Use ):

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Terafil filter in slum and SC & ST houses in Orissa

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Use of Terafil Water filter in primary schools in Jajpur Dist of Orissa

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1,000 LPD TERAFIL water filter in schools under JALMANI More than 50, 000 units in operation in various states Community TERAFIL water filter in schools under JALMANI programme

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Iron contaminated raw water Terafil water filter with ferro-cement chambers in JALAMANI programme. in schools of Odisha, installed by RWS&S, Govt of Odisha

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More than 2000 units 5000 LPD Terafil plants installed in Karnataka

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1,00,000 lit/day TERAFIL water purifier in Odisha

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1,00,000 lit/day TERAFIL water purifier at Balipatana, Puri dist, Odisha

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Raw water charging

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TERAFIL CANDLES BELOW RAW WATER

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30,000 Lit/day Terafil gravity flow water purification plant.

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Domestic On-line Terafil water Filter (200 Ltr/hr capacity) Terafil disc Operates by overhead tank or pump Auto- cleaning of sediments from Terafil disc

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Community On-line Terafil water filter (3000 lit/ hr capacity)

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TERAFIL WATER FILTER launched by Hon’ble Chief Minister of Orissa on 10 th August 2007

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TERAFIL WATER FILTER launched by Hon’ble Dy. Chief Minister of Tamilnadu on 25 th August 2010 at Chennai

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Inspection of Terafil water filter by Hon’ble Chief Minister of Meghalaya at shillong

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Inspection of Terafil water filter by Hon’ble Minister, PHE Of J&K at Jammu

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Inspection of IMMT technology by Hon’ble MP Sri Rahul Gandhi & Minister S&T, GOI Sri Kapil Sibal at Amethi, UP

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Inauguration of domestic TERAFIL water filter by Sri Sri Ravisankar Ji, spiritual guru & founder of Art of Living

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Hon,ble Minister, RD & MDWS, Govt of India, Sri Jairam Ramesh inspecting Terafil water filters at National Workshop of Drinking water

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TERAFIL water filter in CSIR-800 programme: Science Congress at Bhubaneswar

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Terafil water filters in schools of Dimapur, Nagaland

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Terafil water filter for community use in Meghalaya

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Capacity:600 liter, 10 year old Terafil Iron removal plant in Odisha

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Removal of dissolved lime through TERAFIL candles without clogging its core at Bilashpur, Himachal Pradesh Field trail: DRDA, RD Dept, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh

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Few critical analysis of performance of TERAFIL water purification systems

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Performance of 1,500 sets Domestic Terafil Water filters (POU) Installed in few villages of Odisha (August 2009 – September 2011) pH Iron RW RW FW FW

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1,000 LPD TERAFIL GRAVITY FILTER Location: Utkal University School, Bhubaneswar under JALMANI (Oct. 2009 – Oct 2011) Iron from raw water adsorbed on Terafil surface and some minerals of Terafil clay released to product water during filtration, resulting to increase of pH & TDS of product water. pH Iron TDS Turbidity FW FW FW RW RW RW RW FW

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10,000 LPD TERAFIL GRAVITY FILTER Location: CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar (Sept. 2010 – Oct 2011) Iron from raw water adsorbed on Terafil surface and some minerals of Terafil clay released to product water during filtration, resulting to increase of pH & TDS of product water. pH Iron Turbidity TDS RW RW RW FW FW FW RW FW

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Performance of Domestic Online Terafil water filters in CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar Campus( Aug 2009 to Aug. 2011) Iron pH TDS Turbidity FW RW RW RW RW FW FW FW

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Total coliform in raw water (treated with 2 mg/lit bleaching powder (30% Chlorine) Total coliform in filtered water (Raw water treated with 2 mg/lit bleaching powder prior to filtration) Total Coliform count in Input water: 2.8 – 3.5 X 10 6 CFU/ml Reduction through Terafil (without chemical treatment): 99.9% (Log 10 Reduction = 3) Reduction through Terafil ( Raw water treated with 2mg/lit Bleaching powder): 100%

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Regarding saturation of filtration in gravity operated TERAFIL water purification systems: Value of the Saturated rate of filtration (SRF) depends mostly on water head. Sludge deposit over Terafil has no significant effect on SRF. SRF valid up to a limited water head (Preferably:1.2 Meter water). More than 90% rejuvenation of filtration occurs by removal of sludge from top of Terafil candle (Water head: < 1.5 Meter). Colloidal particles penetrates into capillaries on top layer of Terafil disc up to 1-2 mm depth at higher water pressure and reduces rate of filtration. Periodic top wash/ light scrubbing or cutting of top layer of Terafil disc is necessary for rejuvenation of filtration. Quality of product water is not affected by SRF, head & turbidity of raw water, scrubbing/ cutting Terafil disc.

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Mechanism for removal of dissolved iron by Terafil : (A). Ref. Prof.T.Pradeep , IIT-M : When Iron contaminated ground water exposed to air, Fe 2+ is converted into Fe 3 + within 2 minutes and subsequently hydrolyzed to form colloids. iron colloids is more than 200 nm in diameter. Iron colloids removed significantly through filtration on top surface of Terafil disc due to small capillary openings in ultrafine clay walls of the pores. Deposits of colloids forms iron sludge in long run. (B). Ref. Dr.S.Anand , CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar : Ion-exchange between sintered clay & water is responsible for removal of dissolved iron. (C). Ref. D. V. Halem , Master of Science Thesis , Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, Nov 06: Clay minerals have a negative surface charge. Interaction between negatively charged clay particle surface and cations in top layer pore water generate an electric double layer, which is an important phenomenon for Ion exchange. Therefore iron from raw water is removed and some other minerals from Terafil clay is released to product water, which results in increase of pH & TDS of product water.

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Contaminated water can be treated with 2 mg bleaching powder/ Lit raw water, followed by filtration through TERAFIL to obtain pathogen free clean & iron safe drinking water. Terafil improves pH & taste and reduces colour of product water. Suspended particles & microbes of diameter more than 200 nm can be removed by Terafil. Point-of-Use & Stand-Alone gravity operated TERAFIL water purifiers are sustainable solution for purification iron contaminated & turbid raw water. Online Terafil pressure filters are suitable for PHE supplied water in city & town. Terafil water purification is a green technology which operates without chemicals & electricity for a long period. Conclusion:

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Acknowledgements : Author is grateful to Scientists, Technical staff & project staff of CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar for their assistance in studies, experiments and developments of TERAFIL water purification systems during 1996 – 2012. Author is also highly grateful to IMMT, Bhubaneswar and CSIR-HQ for financial supports for development of TERAFIL water purification systems. Author is grateful to Prof. T. Pradeep & his team, IIT-M for extensive study to find out iron removal mechanisms by Terafil candle. Author is immensely grateful to DST, MDWS, CIPET, Govt. of India and many state Govts. including Odisha for their deep interest & propagation of Terafil technology through out the India.

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Thank you Save drinking water

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