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Introduction to Geopolitics (The study of political activity within a spatial context)

A. Typical Issues:

A. Typical Issues Boundary delineation international alliances regional compacts cartels-OPEC voting patterns constituency boundaries colonialism-Imperialism

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♦ States or countries independent political units defined, permanently populated territory full sovereign control over internal and foreign affairs exceptions: colonies and protectorates ♦ Nations group of people with a common culture a strong sense of unity shared customs and beliefs language and religion similarities ♦ Stateless nations (Palestinians, Kurds) and nation-states (Japan, France)

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♦ origins and diffusion of the modern state European model (Greece, Rome, Normans) Treaty of Westphalia (1648)-gave rise to the nation state rise of nationalism - movement within a nation to maintain cultural identity (manifest destiny, white man’s burden, missionaries) concept of sovereignty

Geographic characteristics of states (size, shape, location and core areas):

territory morphology—size and shape of a country compact (Bangladesh, Switzerland, Iceland, Luxembourg, Belgium) fragmented (Philippines, Japan, Indonesia) elongated (Chile, Norway, Malawi) Protruded (Thailand, Myanmar) Perforated (San Marino, S. Africa) Geographic characteristics of states (size, shape, location and core areas)

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2. Enclaves and exclaves (Transcaucasia, Hong Kong(enclave of China)—until 1997, Alaska is an exclave of the US, Oman has an exclave

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3. Landlocked (Bolivia, Nepal, Switzerland, Afghanistan) 4. land boundaries (include subsoil)

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5. evolution of boundaries Definition (legal document drawn up on exact location) delimitation (cartographers put boundaries on a map) demarcation (boundary is marked by posts, fences, wall, pillars) 6. types of boundaries geometric boundaries natural-political boundaries (rivers, lakes, seas) cultural-political boundaries(Azerbaijan-Armenia)

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7. Genetic boundaries (Hartshorne) Antecedent boundaries (precede actual development through sparsely or uninhabited areas—tropical rain forests) ex. New Guinea Subsequent boundaries (drawn up after settlement has taken place) ex. Czech Rep., Slovakia Superimposed boundary (ignores existing cultural or tribal groupings) ex. Forcibly drawn by powers Relic boundary (ceases to function as a boundary anymore but is still present—The Great wall of china, Hadrian’s Wall)

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8. Boundaries vs. Frontiers (zones of separation) 9. boundary disputes definitional boundary disputes (legal language of boundary agreement river may change course) location boundary disputes (delimitation or demarcation situations- treaty was vague or its somewhere in a desert - ex. Saudi Arabia, Yemen operational boundary disputes (one state wants to limit migration while the other does not-to prevent drug smuggling allocational boundary disputes (Iraq vs. Kuwait over oil reserves

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G. Political organization of states or countries core states and multicore states (Nigeria) capital cities and “forward capital” unitary, confederate, and federal systems Centripetal (promote national unity) vs. centrifugal forces (divisive forces) Nationalism Religion Infrastructure Common history Social inequality

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200-Nautical Mile Exclusive Economic Zone Figure 12.24 12-13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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