Herbal Immunomodulators_PK

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Herbal Immunomodulators :

Herbal Immunomodulators PRABHAT KHARE Asst. Professor, SIRT-P

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Rasayana / Haemostatic Inducers of enzymes and hormones Body fluids can be replenished Possibility to achieve vitality and vigor Greater resistance to disease Intelligence Excellence of luster / great memory Personal beauty / Body strength

Introduction:

Introduction Immunity : It refers to the ability of the body to identify and resist microorganisms that are potentially harmful. Complex and highly developed system, yet its mission is simple : to seek and kill invaders. Modulation denotes to any change in the immune response that can involve induction, expression, amplification or inhibition of any part or phase of the immune response. Immunomodulation is the process of modifying an immune response in a positive manner by administration of a drug or compound.

IMMUNE SYSTEM:

IMMUNE SYSTEM Composed of many interdependent cell types that collectively protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal, viral infections and from the growth of tumor cells. These cells have specialized functions i.e. they can engulf bacteria, kill parasites or tumor cells, or kill viral-infected cells. Consist of: Innate immunity Adaptive immunity

Cells of the Immune System :

Cells of the Immune System Granulocytes or Polymorphonuclear ( PMN’s ) Leukocytes: Removal of bacteria & parasites. Macrophages : Important in the regulation of immune responses. Also known as scavengers or antigen-presenting cells ( APC ) provide functionaltiy by phagocytosis. T-Cells: T lymphocytes are usually divided into two major subsets that are functionally and phenotypically different. The T helper subset , (CD4+ T cell): they augment or potentiate immune responses by the secretion of specialized factors that activate other WBC’s to fight off infection. T killer/suppressor subset (CD8+ T cell): Important in killing of certain tumor cells, viral-infected cells and sometimes parasites. Natural Killer Cells: Directly kill their targets without a prior involvement lymphoid organs. Dendritic cells , function as antigen presenting cells ( APC ) they capture antigen or bring it to the lymphoid organs where an immune response is initiated.

Innate Immunity:

Innate Immunity First line of defense against an antigenic insult. They provide non-specific response against infection / pathogens / injury. Responses are generic and leave no memory; nonetheless the innate immune system functions effectively to keep organisms healthy. It Includes Physical Components: skin Biochemical Components: lysozyme , interferon's cellular components: neutrophils , monocytes , macrophages.

Adaptive Immunity:

Adaptive Immunity It is specific , has an element of memory, and is unique to vertebrates. The humoral component involves the proliferation of antigen-stimulated B- lymphocytes into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Mechanism of Acquired Immunity: Helper T-Cells Cytotoxic T-Cells Suppressor T-Cells Memory Cells

IMMUNOMODULATION:

IMMUNOMODULATION Immunomodulators are substances that have been shown to modify the immune systems response they modulate and potentiate the weapons of your immune system keeping them in a highly prepared state These are biological or synthetic substances, which can stimulate, suppress or modulate any of the immune system including both adaptive and innate. SUB-TYPES: Immunoadjuvants : Used for enhancing vaccines efficacy and therefore, could be considered as specific immune stimulants They act like true modulators of immune response. Immunostimulants : non-specific in nature as they enhance resistance against infection. In healthy individuals they serve as prophylactic and promoter agents i.e. as immunopotentiators by enhancing basic level of immune response, and In the individual with impairment of immune response they act as immunotherapeutic agents Immunosuppressants : These are a structurally and functionally heterogeneous group of drugs, which are often concomitantly administered in combination regimens to treat various types of organ transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases .

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Natural products as Immunomodulators Low Molecular Weight Compounds - Alkaloids - Steroids - Terpenoids - Phenols High Molecular Weight Compounds - Polysaccharides - Peptides - Glycoproteins - Nucleoproteins

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Immunomodulators from plants

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Immunostimulating polysaccharide from fungi lichens & algae

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