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Gas Turbine :

Presented by:- Amod D. Khanvilkar Sumit D. Pawar Gas Turbine


The earliest patent on gas turbine was that of the Englishman, John Barber, in year 1879. Early designs were unsuccessful due to some factors. Serious development of the gas turbine began only after the second world war with the shaft power in mind. Introduction

Working cycle: Brayton Cycle:

Working cycle: Brayton Cycle Process 1-2: Isentropic compression in the compressor Process 2-3: Addition of heat at constant pressure Process 3-4: Isentropic expansion of air Process 4-1: Rejection of heat at constant pressure

How does Gas Turbine works?:

Gas turbine functions in the same way as the Compressed Ignition Engine. It sucks in air from the atmosphere, compresses it. The fuel is injected and ignited. The gases expand doing work and finally exhausts outside. The only difference is instead of the reciprocating motion, gas turbine uses a rotary motion throughout. How does Gas Turbine works?

The three main sections of the Gas Turbine:

Compressor Combuster Turbine The three main sections of the Gas Turbine

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1. Compressor:

1. Compressor The compressor sucks the air from the atmosphere and compresses it and guides it to the combustion chamber.

2. Combuster:

This is an annular chamber where the fuel burns and is similar to the furnace in a boiler. The air from the compressor is the Combustion air. 2. Combuster

3. Turbine:

Stationary guide vanes of turbine direct the gases to the next set of blades. The kinetic energy of the hot gases impacting on the blades rotates the blades and the shaft. 3. Turbine

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Actual view of gas turbine

Classification of Gas Turbines:

A. On basis of combustion process : 1. Continuous combustion or Constant pressure type 2. The explosion or constant volume type B. On basis of path of working substance: 1. Open cycle gas turbine 2. Closed cycle gas turbine C. On basis of action of expanding gases: 1. Impluse turbine 2. Impulse- Reaction turbine D. On the basis of direction of flow: 1. Axial flow 2. Radial flow Classification of Gas Turbines

Open Cycle Gas turbine:

Open Cycle Gas turbine Fresh air is drawn into the compressor from atmosphere. Heat is added by combustion of fuel. Exhaust from turbine is released in atmosphere. Arrangement of continuous replacement of working medium is required.

Closed Cycle Gas turbine:

Closed Cycle Gas turbine In this , cycle is closed and exhaust is not open to atmosphere. In this there is continuously supply of same working gas. Higher density gases like hydrogen or carbon dioxide is used. So we get higher efficiency then open cycle GT.

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Applications Turbojet engines Marine field Supercharging Railway engines Generation of electric power Industry Applications

Application in Aircraft:

Application in Aircraft Nearly all the military aircrafts are powered by gas turbine. These are used for the higher generation of power in plane.

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As there is cut off the auxilliary engine gas turbine gets started. As the speed of the plane increases the compressor gets rotated and compresses the air and that get combusted in combustion chamber. Then the exhaust gases are thrown out.

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Working of Gas Turbine

 Advantages :

Very high power-to-weight ratio , compared to reciprocating engines. Smaller than most reciprocating engines of the same power rating. Fewer moving parts than reciprocating engines Low operating pressures & High operation speeds. Low lubricating oil cost and consumption.  Advantages 

 Disadvantages :

Higher Cost. Less efficient than reciprocating engines at idle. Longer startup than reciprocating engines. Less responsive to changes in power demand compared to reciprocating engines.  Disadvantages 

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