FUEL

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

HISTORY INTRODUCTION TYPES OF FUEL REFERENCES

Comments

Presentation Transcript

TYPES OF FUEL:

TYPES   OF FUEL Presented by Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar 1

OUTLINE:

OUTLINE HISTORY INTRODUCTION TYPES OF FUEL REFERENCES Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 2

HISTORY:

HISTORY The very first known use of the coal was the combustion of wood or sticks Charcoal has been used atleast 6000 BCE for melting metals Coal was commonly used with the development of steam engine Use of coal in 19 th , 20 th & 21 st century Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 3

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION FUEL are any material that store potential energy and can be practicably released and used for WORK & HEAT ENERGY It is a source of HEAT Heat is produced by COMBUSTION and NUCLEAR REACTIONS Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 4

TYPES OF FUELS:

TYPES OF FUELS According to physical state in which they exists Solid Liquid Gaseous According to mode of their procurement Natural Artificial Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 5

Slide6:

(Reference: book: Applied Thermal Engineering; pg no. 37) TYPES OF FUELS (continued) Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 6

Solid fuels:

Solid fuels Introduction to Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 7

SOLID FUEL:

SOLID FUEL Solid material are used as fuel to produce energy by combustion Wood , peat , lignite or brown coal , bituminious coal and anthracite are important natural solid fuels Charcoal , soft coke , hard coke and carbonised lignite briquettes are solid fuels derived from natural varieties Other examples are animal dung and agricultural and industrial wastes such as straw , husk , coconut shells , bagasse and sawdust Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 8

COAL AND ITS CHARACTERSTICS:

COAL AND ITS CHARACTERSTICS Coal is combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers called coal beds Deposits of coal in India Consumption of coal in India Analysis of coal Proximate analysis Ultimate analysis Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 9

Proximity analysis :

Proximity analysis The test gives the composition of coal in respect of moisture , volatile matter , ash and fixed carbon The results of proximate analysis of most coals indicate the following broad ranges of various constituents by weight : Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 10

Ultimate analysis:

Ultimate analysis This analysis of coal is more precise way to find the chemical composition of coal with respect to the elements like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and ash. The broad range in which the constituents of coal vary by weight as determined by ultimate analysis are given below : Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 11

Ultimate analysis (continued):

The very old and earliest classification was based on the visual observation and the burning characteristics of coal are as follows: Lignite or brown coal : Brown or Black color woody substances with high moisture contents Bituminous coal : Black in color, easily ignites, and burns with flame and smoke. Anthracite : Black color and lustrous, difficult to ignite and burns without flame. Ultimate analysis (continued) Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 12

Slide13:

January, 2015 Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar 13

Liquid fuels:

Liquid fuels Introduction to Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 14

Petroleum and its Characteristics:

Petroleum and its Characteristics Petroleum is a basic natural fuel. Total resources of 1317 billion barrels (as on 1 st january 2007) OPEC countries account for 57.3% Decline in consumption It is a dark greenish brown , viscous mineral oil, found deep in earth’s crust. It is mainly composed of various hydrocarbons together with small amount of organic compounds containing oxygen nitrogen and sulphur January, 2015 Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar 15

Petroleum and its Characteristics (continued):

The average composition of crude petroleum is: C = 79.5 to 87.1% H = 11.5 to 14.8% S = 0.1 to 3.5% N and O = 0.1 to 0.5% The calorific value of diesel fuel is roughly  45.5 MJ/kg  slightly lower than petro l which is  45.8 MJ/kg . However, diesel fuel is denser than petrol and contains about 15% more energy by volume (roughly 36.9 MJ/litre compared to 33.7 MJ/litre) Petroleum and its Characteristics (continued) January, 2015 Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar 16

Classification of Petroleum:

Classification of Petroleum The chemical nature of crude petroleum varies with the part of the world in which it is found. They appear, however, to be three principal verities. Paraffinic Base Type Crude Petroleum Asphalitc Base Type Crude Petroleum Mixed Base Type Crude Petroleum Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 17

Gaseous fuels:

Gaseous fuels Introduction to Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 18

Slide19:

Gaseous fuels occur in nature , besides being manufactured from solid and liquid fuels Natural gas is generally associated with petroleum deposits and is obtained from wells dug in the oil-bearing regions. The approximate composition of natural gas is CH 4 = 70.9% C 2 H 6 = 5.10% H 2 = 3% CO + CO 2 = 22% Gaseous Fuel Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 19

Slide20:

The calorific value varies from 12,000 to 14,000 kcal/m3. It is a colourless gas and is non-poisonous. Its specific gravity is usually between 0.57 to 0.7 Gaseous Fuel (continued) Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 20

Slide21:

Source: US Energy Information Administration Gaseous Fuel (continued) Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 21

References:

References Fuels and combustion by sameer sarkar Nptel US Energy Information Administration http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 22

Slide23:

Thank You  Presented By Amod Dileep Khanvilkar January, 2015 23

authorStream Live Help