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Ashaf Aasim Khanday..........


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MOTIVATION MOTIVATION derived from the word ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to action to accomplish the goals.

Nature of Motivation.:

Nature of Motivation. Motivation is internal to man A single motive can cause different behaviors. Motives come and go. Motives interact with with the environment. Different motives may result in a single behavior. Complex process. Motivation can be either positive or negative.

Importance of motivation.:

Importance of motivation. Productive use of resources. Increased efficiency and output. Achievement of goals. Development of friendly relationships. Stability in workforce. Acceptance of organizational changes.



NeeccccTheories of Motivation:

NeeccccTheories of Motivation Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model

Implication of Maslow’s Theory of Motivation:

Implication of Maslow’s Theory of Motivation HRM policies and practices should pay attention to all of these needs – ranging from the most basic to the highest in order to achieve the overall goals of the organization. It is not enough that the individual employees are provided with their basic physiological needs but they have to be given the opportunity to participate in decision making processes in such a way that they will be able to realize their own growth, development, and potential.

McClelland’s Theory of Needs / Achievement Motivation Theory :

McClelland’s Theory of Needs / Achievement Motivation Theory David McClelland and his associates proposed this theory states that human behavior is affected by three needs: a. Need for achievement is the urge to excel, to accomplish in relation to a set of standards, to struggle to achieve success

McClelland’s Theory of Needs / Achievement Motivation Theory :

McClelland’s Theory of Needs / Achievement Motivation Theory b . Need for power: is the desire to influence other individual’s behavior as per your wish. In other words, it is the desire to have control over others and to be influential. c. Need for affiliation: is a need for open and sociable interpersonal relationships. In other words, it is a desire for relationship based on co-operation and mutual understanding.

Implication of McClelland’s Theory for HRM:

Implication of McClelland’s Theory for HRM In designing and managing HR policies and practices, the HR practitioner should assume that all personnel have the potential for growth and development. Therefore, the agency must always provide the employees with ample opportunities for training and education, for promotion, and other personnel development Supervisors, directors, or managers with a strong drive for power should have training and effective interpersonal and group skills so that their leadership skills will be used for enhancing the spirit of teamwork rather than for dominating or stifling creativity among subordinates


HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioral scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. There are some job factors that result in satisfaction while there are other job factors that prevent dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation:

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

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HYGEINE FACTORS: They are not intrinsic to the job but are related to conditions under which job is performed, They do not have any impact on the workers output, they only prevent losses in workers performance due to work restrictions.These factors are work conditions,job security,pay, interpersonal relationship with peers,subordinates,supervisors etc.

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Motivational factors: hygiene factors cannot be regarded as motivators. The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. These factors are inherent to work. These factors motivate the employees for a superior performance. The motivational factors are achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement etc.

Implication of Herzberg’s Theory:

Implication of Herzberg’s Theory Managers must stress upon guaranteeing the adequacy of the hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction. And then use motivators to meet higher needs and propel employees towards greater achievement and satisfaction.

Alderfer’s ERG Theory of Motivation :

Alderfer’s ERG Theory of Motivation

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b. Relatedness needs - include the aspiration individual’s have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships, getting public fame and recognition. Maslow’s social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of need. c. Growth needs - include need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. Maslow’s self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need. a . Existence needs - include need for basic material necessities or it include an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs

Implications of the ERG:

Implications of the ERG Managers must understand that an employee has various needs that must be satisfied at the same time. According to the ERG theory, if the manager concentrates solely on one need at a time, this will not effectively motivate the employee.

Management Theories of Motivation:

Management Theories of Motivation Theory X presents a pessimistic view of employees’ nature and behavior at work Assumptions of Theory X An average employee intrinsically does not like work and tries to escape it whenever possible. Since the employee does not want to work, he must be persuaded, compelled, or warned with punishment so as to achieve organizational goals. A close supervision is required on part of managers. The managers adopt a more dictatorial style.

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Assumptions of Theory X Many employees rank job security on top, and they have little or no aspiration/ ambition. Employees generally dislike responsibilities. Employees resist change. An average employee needs formal direction

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Theory Y presents an optimistic view of the employees’ nature and behavior at work Assumptions of Theory Y Employees can perceive their job as relaxing and normal. They exercise their physical and mental efforts in an inherent manner in their jobs. Employees may not require only threat, external control and coercion to work, but they can use self-direction and self-control if they are dedicated and sincere to achieve the organizational objectives.

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If the job is rewarding and satisfying, then it will result in employees’ loyalty and commitment to organization. An average employee can learn to admit and recognize the responsibility. In fact, he can even learn to obtain responsibility. The employees have skills and capabilities. Their logical capabilities should be fully utilized. In other words, the creativity, resourcefulness and innovative potentiality of the employees can be utilized to solve organizational problems.

Implications of Theory X and Theory Y:

Implications of Theory X and Theory Y Theory X encourages use of tight control and supervision. It implies that employees are reluctant to organizational changes. Thus, it does not encourage innovation. Theory Y implies that the managers should create and encourage a work environment which provides opportunities to employees to take initiative and self-direction. Employees should be given opportunities to contribute to organizational well-being. Theory Y encourages decentralization of authority, teamwork and participative decision making in an organization.


THEORY Z William ouchi, proposed Theory Z in the early 80’s. It is an integrating model containing best of both Japanese and American management practices. It has the following characteristics:- Trust Organization-employee relationship Employee participation Structureless organization Holistic concern for employees.

Equity Theory:

Equity Theory The core of the equity theory is the principle of balance or equity. As per this motivation theory, an individual’s motivation level is correlated to his perception of equity, fairness and justice practiced by the management. Other Theories of motivation

ImpliEquity Theory:

ImpliEquity Theory Implication of equity theory: Managers must know how to treat their employees with all fairness and justice, not only to attain the goals of the company, but also to boost the morale of each of the employees.


VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY Victor Vroom presented the expectancy theory (1964) as an alternative to previous theories. The expectancy theory is built around three concepts : Valence Expectancy Instrumentality.

Implications of vroom’s theory:

Implications of vroom’s theory People make choices based upon what they think will get, not what they got in the past. Rewards should be tied to performance. Rewards should be equitable.

Other Theories of Motivation :

Other Theories of Motivation In 1960’s, Edwin Locke put forward the Goal-setting theory of motivation. This theory states that goal setting is essentially linked to task performance. It states that specific and challenging goals along with appropriate feedback contribute to higher and better task performance. In simple words, goals indicate and give direction to an employee about what needs to be done and how much efforts are required to be put in. Goal-Setting Theory of Motivation

Implication of Goal Setting Theory:

Implication of Goal Setting Theory Implication of goal setting theory: Managers must emphasize to their employees the goal/s of the company so as to make clear what the employees are expected to do. The managers must also know how to raise incentives for employees to complete work quickly and effectively.

Porter and Lawler's Expectancy Theory:

Porter and Lawler's Expectancy Theory Porter (1968) and Lawler (1973) promoted the thesis that performance causes satisfaction. They tried to explore the complex relationship between motivation, satisfaction, and performance and pointed out that efforts does not directly lead to performance. Elements of porter and Lawler's model Effort Performance Rewards Satisfaction.

Implications of the theory:

Implications of the theory The model suggests that managers should carefully assess their reward structures and through careful planning and clear definition of role requirements, the effort-performance-reward-satisfaction system should be integrated into an entire system of managing.

Carrot and Stick Approach:

Carrot and S tick Approach The traditional style of ‘ 'Stick ’ discipline and punishment appears to have produced negative rather than positive results and has increased the hate between management and workers In contrast to this, the 'carrot ' approach, involving approval, admire and recognition of effort has markedly improved the work atmosphere, produced the 'goods' and given the workers enormous satisfaction.


MATURITY-IMMATURITY THEORY Immaturity Passive. Dependence. Behaves in a few ways. Having a short term prospective. Subordinate position. Lack of awareness of self. Maturity Active. Independence. Capable of behaving in a variety of ways. Long term perspective Subordinate or equal position. Awareness and control overself.

Motivational tools.:

Motivational tools. Financial incentives Salaries, bonus, retirement benefits, medical reimbursement and like. Non-Financial Incentives individual incentives: status, promotion, responsibility, recognition, interesting work Group incentives: social importance of work, team spirit, healthy competition. Organizational incentives: Participation, sound human relations, morale, communication and discipline.

Tips in motivation Practical points:

synergy Tips in motivation Practical points

Make communication a priority.:

synergy Make communication a priority. Open channels of communication to allow employees to ask questions, stay informed and share information. Employees want to know what changes are taking place, and how the changes affect them and the work they do.

Employees involvement:

synergy Employees involvement Involve employees in creating a clear vision/mission/business plan for their group. The more they're involved, the more committed they are to the group and their role in the group.


synergy Update Keep your team up-to-date on the status of the plans you jointly created. Let them know how their efforts are doing as part of the total picture. And be honest; communicate bad news as well as good.

Appreciate efforts:

synergy Appreciate efforts Demonstrate a genuine appreciation for employee efforts. Be specific about what you're admiring, and don't give admire for routine work.

Match skills with task:

synergy Match skills with task Match employees' skills, interest and levels of competence to the tasks they do. Ask your employees what they like most about their jobs, then match future projects with their interest areas.

Freedom in decision making:

synergy Freedom in decision making Let employees make decisions, when appropriate. Make your expectations clear; collaborate on what kinds of decisions an employee can make and give reasons for the kinds of decisions that you don't want him or her to make

Reward employees:

Synergy Reward employees Reward employees who demonstrate consistent superior performance over time with more interesting job assignments.

Thank you:

Motivation Theories & Practices Thank you

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